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Political Parties and Social Organizations
2004/03/08
          The Communist Party of China

          Founded in July 1921, the CPC has more than 54 million members for
          the time being. The present General Secretary of the Party Central
          Committee is Jiang Zemin.
          From 1921 to 1949 the Communist Party of China led the Chinese
          people in arduous struggles and finally overthrew the rule of
          imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat-capitalism and established the
          People's Republic of China. After the rounding of New China, the
          Communist Party of China as a ruling party led the Chinese people of
          all nationalities in defending the independence and safety of the
          country, successfully completing the transition from new democracy
          to socialism, carrying out large-scale socialist construction in a
          planned way and, consequently, in achieving an economic and cultural
          progress without parallel in Chinese history.
          The 14th National Congress of the CPC, held in October 1992, was an
          event of historical significance. The Congress thoughtfully and
          seriously summed up the practical experience gained in reform and
          opening to the outside world since the Third Plenum of the CPC 11th
          Central Committee held at the end of 1978, expounded the theory of
          building socialism with Chinese characteristics, and worked out the
          strategic tasks for the coming period. The Congress unequivocally
          called for the establishment of the socialist market economy system,
          the speeding up of reform and opening to the outside world, the
          concentration of energy to promote economic construction, and a
          vigorous struggle to develop the national economy at a relatively
          high speed with proper attention given to economic performance. Now
          the CPC is leading the Chinese people in building socialism with
          Chinese characteristics and striving for its ultimate goal--the
          establishment of a communist social system.  
           
           Democratic Parties

          In China, the term democratic parties refers to the eight other
          parties apart from the Communist Party. The democratic parties have
          established cooperation with the Communist Party of China on
          different levels since their rounding days. In answering the
          Communist Party's call for convening a Chinese People's Political
          Consultative Conference, they participated in the preparatory work
          for the conference from May 1948 to early 1949. Together with the
          Communist Party and other democrats, they were all represented at
          the First Plenary Session of the Chinese People's Political
          Consultative Conference held in September 1949. It was at this
          meeting that the "Common Programme of the CPPCC" which served as a
          provisional constitution was adopted, the Central People's
          Government elected and the rounding of the People's Republic of
          China proclaimed. In the more than 40 years since the rounding of
          New China, China's democratic parties have conscientiously taken
          part in consultations and decision-making regarding important
          national political issues. Many representatives from the democratic
          parties have been elected to people's congresses and CPPCC
          committees at all levels; many hold leading positions in the
          standing committees of the people's congresses, the CPPCC
          committees. the people's government and in economic, cultural,
          educational, scientific and technological departments. China's
          democratic parties are neither parties out of office, nor opposition
          parties. Rather, with the CPC they share a policy of "long-term
          coexistence, mutual supervision, reciprocal sincerity in all
          dealings and sharing weal and woe." The democratic parties devote
          themselves to the socialist cause and participate in governmental
          and political affairs.

          These democratic parties are:
         
             China Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang
              Founded in January 1948, it has more than 47,000 members. It is
              composed mainly of former Kuomintang members and those who have
              historical connections with the Kuomintang. The present Chairman
              of its Central Committee is Li Peiyao.
       
              China Democratic League
              Founded in October 1941, now it has 117,000 members, mostly
              intellectuals at high and medium levels. The present Chairman of
              its Central Committee is Fei Xiaotong.
       
              China Democratic National Construction Association
              Founded in December 1945, it has more than 61,000 members who
              are mainly connected with the economic sphere or experts and
              scholars. Sun Qimeng is the Chairman of its Central Committee.
     
              China Association for Promoting Democracy
              Founded in December 1945, it has more than 56,000 members. Its
              members are mainly intellectuals working in the educational,
              cultural, scientific and publishing fields. Lei Jieqiong is the
              Chairwoman of its Central Committee.
     
              Chinese Peasants'and Workers'Democratic Party
              Founded in August 1930, it now has more than 55,000 members.
              Most members work in the fields of public health, culture and
              education, science and technology. The present Chairman of its
              Central Committee is Lu Jiaxi.
   
              China Zhi Gong Dang
              Founded in October 1925, it has more than 13,000 members. Most
              of its members are returned overseas Chinese and their
              relatives, experts, scholars and representative personages with
              overseas connections. Dong Yinchu is Chairman of its Central
              Committee.
   
              Jiu San Society
              Founded in December 1944, it has more than 57,000 members. They
              are mostly high and medium-level intellectuals working in the
              fields of science and technology, culture and education, and
              medicine. The present Chairman of its Central Committee is Wu
              Jieping.
 
              Taiwan Democratic Self-government League
              Founded in November 1947, it claims over 1,400 members, made up
              mostly of prominent personages who were either from or have
              family roots in Taiwan but now reside on the mainland. The
              present Chairman of its Central Presidium is Cai Zimin.
         
           Social Organizations
 
              Among China's many social organizations are included:
     
              All-China Federation of Trade Unions
              This is the supreme leading body of all local federations of
              trade unions as well as national industrial unions in China.
              Founded in May 1925, it has 101.761 million members in the
              country. The present Chairman of its Central Executive Committee
              is Wei Jianxing.
   
              All-China Youth Federation
              Founded in May 1949, this federation comprises all the youth
              organizations in China, including the Communist Youth League,
              All-China Students' Federation, All-China Young Men's Christian
              Association, All-China Young Women's Christian Association,
              Chinese Association of Young Entrepreneurs, and Chinese
              Association of Young Township Entrepreneurs, Chinese Association
              of Young Scientists and Technicians, Beijing Association of
              Young Editors and Reporters, Chinese Youth Volunteers
              Association, Chinese Youth Association for Industiral Promotion
              and Development, Chinese Youth Research Society, Youth
              Federation of Organizations Directly Under the CPC Central
              Committee, Youth Federation of the Central State Organizations,
              along with the youth federations of the individual provinces,
              autonomous regions, and centrally administered municipalities.
              The current All-China Youth Federation chairman is Liu Peng.
              Founded in May 1922, the Communist Youth League of China, with a
              current membership of 56.8 million of China's advanced youth, is
              the core organization. The League's current Central Committee
              first secretary is Li Keqiang.
   
              All-China Women's Federation
              Founded in April 1949, this mass organization is made up of
              women from all walks of life and all ethnic groups fighting for
              further emancipation. Chen Muhua is Chairwoman of its Executive
              Committee. The All-China Women's Federation works hard for the
              protection of women's rights and interests, including political
              rights, labour employment rights, property rights, cultural and
              educational rights, and personal rights, as well as marriage and
              family rights, and special rights related to their physiological
              characteristics. The 5th Session of the 7th National People's
              Congress passed the "Law on the Protection of Women's Rights and
              Interests" in April 1992, signalling that China's work on
              safeguarding women's rights and interests had entered a new
              stage defined by law.
              The Fourth World Conference on Women will be held in Beijing
              September 4-15, 1995. In terms of attendance, this will be the
              largest international meeting held in the People's Republic
              since its rounding, with an anticipated 30,000 women from all
              over the world gathering in Beijing.
 
              All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce
              Founded in October 1953, the Federation, a popular association
              organized by Chinese involved with industry and commerce,
              functions as a non-governmental chamber of commerce for domestic
              and foreign affairs. The present Chairman of its Executive
              Committee is Jing Shuping.
 
              Chinese People's Association for Friendship with Foreign
              Countries
              Founded in May 1954, the Association aims to promote friendship
              and mutual understanding between the Chinese people and those in
              other countries. On behalf of the Chinese people, it contacts
              friendly organizations and individuals in other countries and
              develops mutual exchanges, providing a bond of friendship
              linking the Chinese people with people throughout the rest of
              the world. Its present President is Qi Huaiyuan.

          Apart from the above-mentioned social organizations, there are many
          others including China Federation of Literary and Art Circles,
          Chinese Writers Association, All-China Journalists Association,
          China Association for Science and Technology, All-China Federation
          for Returned Overseas Chinese, and China Disabled Persons'
          Federation.


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