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Constitution
2004/03/08
                    (Adopted on December 4, 1982 by the Fifth National People's
          Congress of the People's Republic of China at its Fifth Session)
         
                                    CONTENTS
         
              Preamble
         
              Chapter One
              General Principles
         
              Chapter Two
              The Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens
         
              Chapter Three
              The Structure of the State
              Section I.   The National People's Congress
              Section II.  The President of the People's Republic of China
              Section Ill. The State Council
              Section IV.  The Central Military Commission
              Section V.   The Local People's Congresses and the Local
          People's
                           Governments at Different Levels
              Section VI.  The Organs of Self-Government of
                           National Autonomous Areas
              Section VII. The People's Courts and the People's Procuratorates
         
              Chapter Four
              The National Flag, the National Emblem and the Capital
         
                                        PREAMBLE
         
               China is one of the countries with the longest histories in the
          world. The people of all nationalities in China have jointly created
          a
          splendid culture and have a glorious revolutionary tradition.
               Feudal China was gradually reduced after 1840 to a
          semi-colonial
          and semi-feudal country. The Chinese people waged wave upon wave of
          heroic struggles for national independence and liberation and for
          democracy and freedom.
               Great and earth-shaking historical changes have taken place in
          China in the 20th century.
               The Revolution of 1911, led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen, abolished the
          feudal monarchy and gave birth to the Republic of China. But the
          Chinese people had yet to fulfil their historical task of
          overthrowing
          imperialism and feudalism.
               After waging hard, protracted and tortuous struggles, armed and
          otherwise, the Chinese people of all nationalities led by the
          Communist Party of China with Chairman Mao Zedong as its leader
          ultimately, in 1949, overthrew the rule of imperialism, feudalism
          and
          bureaucrat-capitalism, won the great victory of the new-democratic
          revolution and founded the People's Republic of China. Thereupon the
          Chinese people took state power into their own hands and became
          masters of the country.
               After the founding of the People's Republic, the transition of
          Chinese society from a new-democratic to a socialist society was
          effected step by step, The socialist transformation of the private
          ownership of the means of production was completed, the system of
          exploitation of man by man eliminated and the socialist system
          established. The people's democratic dictatorship led by the working
          class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants, which is in
          essence the dictatorship of the proletariat, has been consolidated
          and
          developed. The Chinese people and the Chinese People's Liberation
          Army have thwarted aggression, sabotage and armed provocations by
          imperialists and hegemonists, safeguarded China's national
          independence
          and security and strengthened its national defence. Major successes
          have been achieved in economic development. An independent and
          fairly
          comprehensive socialist system of industry has in the main been
          established. There has been a marked increase in agricultural
          production.
          Significant progress has been made in educational, scientific,
          cultural
          and other undertakings, and socialist ideological education has
          yielded
          noteworthy results. The living standards of the people have improved
         
          considerably.
               Both the victory of China's new-democratic revolution and the
          successes of its socialist cause have been achieved by the Chinese
          people of all nationalities under the leadership of the Communist
          Party of China and the guidance of Marxism- Leninism and Mao Zedong
          Thought, and by upholding truth, correcting errors and overcoming
          numerous difficulties and hardships. The basic task of the nation in
          the years to come is td concentrate its effort on socialist
          modernization. Under the leadership of the Communist Party of China
          and the guidance of Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought, the
          Chinese people of all nationalities will continue to adhere to the
          people's democratic dictatorship and follow the socialist road,
          steadily improve socialist institutions, develop socialist
          democracy,
          improve the socialist legal system and work hard and self-reliantly
          to
          modernize industry, agriculture, national defence and science and
          technology step by step to turn China into a socialist country with
          a
          high level of culture and democracy.
               The exploiting classes as such have been eliminated in our
          country. However, class struggle will continue to exist within
          certain
          limits for a long time to come. The Chinese people must fight
          against
          those forces and elements, both at home and abroad, that are hostile
          to China's socialist system and try to undermine it.
               Taiwan is part of the sacred territory of the People's Republic
          of
          China. It is the lofty duty of the entire Chinese people, including
          our compatriots in Taiwan, to accomplish the great task of
          reunifying
          the motherland.
               In building socialism it is imperative to rely on the workers,
          peasants and intellectuals and unite with all the forces that can be
          united. In the long years of revolution and construction, there has
          been formed under the leadership of the Communist Party of China a
          broad patriotic united front that is composed of democratic parties
          and people's organizations and embraces all socialist working
          people,
          all patriots who support socialism and all patriots who stand for
          reunification of the motherland. This united front will continue to
          be
          consolidated and developed. The Chinese People's Political
          Consultative Conference is a broadly representative organization of
          the united front, which has played a significant historical role and
          will continue to do so in the political and social life of the
          country, in promoting friendship with the people of other countries
          and in the struggle for socialist modernization and for the
          reunification and unity of the country.
               The People's Republic of China is a unitary multinational state
          built up jointly by the people of all its nationalities. Socialist
          relations of equality, unity and mutual assistance have been
          established among them and will continue to be strengthened. In the
          struggle to safeguard the unity of the nationalities, it is
          necessary
          to combat big-nation chauvinism, mainly Han chauvinism, and also
          necessary to combat local-national chauvinism. The state does its
          utmost to promote the common prosperity of all nationalities in the
          country.
               China's achievements in revolution and construction are
          inseparable from support by the people of the world. The future of
          China is closely linked with that of the whole world. China adheres
          to
          an independent foreign policy as well as to the five principles of
          mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual
          non-aggression, non-interference in each other's internal affairs,
          equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence in developing
          diplomatic relations and economic and cultural exchanges with other
          countries; China consistently opposes imperialism, hegemonism and
          colonialism, works to strengthen unity with the people of other
          countries, supports the oppressed nations and the developing
          countries
          in their just struggle to win and preserve national independence and
          develop their national economies, and strives to safeguard world
          peace
          and promote the cause of human progress.
               This Constitution affirms the achievements of the struggles of
          the
          Chinese people of all nationalities and defines the basic system and
          basic tasks of the state in legal form; it is the fundamental law of
          the state and has supreme legal authority. The people of all
          nationalities, all state organs, the armed forces, all political
          parties and public organizations and all enterprises and
          undertakings
          in the country must take the Constitution as the basic norm of
          conduct, and they have the duty to uphold the dignity of the
          Constitution and ensure its implementation.
         
                                   CHAPTER ONE
                                GENERAL PRINCIPLES
         
               Article 1
               The People's Republic of China is a socialist state under the
          people's democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based
          on the alliance of workers and peasants.
               The socialist system is the basic system of the People's
          Republic
          of China. Sabotage of the socialist system by any organization or
          individual is prohibited.
         
               Article 2
               All power in the People's Republic of China belongs to the
          people.
               The organs through which the people exercise state power are
          the
          National People's Congress and the local people's congresses at
          different levels.
               The people administer state affairs and manage economic,
          cultural
          and social affairs through various channels and in various ways in
          accordance with the law.
         
               Article 3
               The state organs of the People's Republic of China apply the
          principle of democratic centralism.
               The National People's Congress and the local people's
          congresses
          at different levels are instituted through democratic election. They
          are responsible to the people and subject to their supervision.
               All administrative, judicial and procuratorial organs of the
          state
          are created by the people's congresses to which they are responsible
          and under whose supervision they operate.
               The division of functions and powers between the central and
          local
          state organs is guided by the principle of giving full play to the
          initiative and enthusiasm of the local authorities under the unified
          leadership of the central authorities.
         
               Article 4
               All nationalities in the People's Republic of China are equal.
          The
          state protects the lawful rights and interests of the minority
          nationalities and upholds and develops the relationship of equality,
         
          unity and mutual assistance among all of China's nationalities.
          Discrimination against and oppression of any nationality are
          prohibited;
          any acts that undermine the unity of the nationalities or instigate
          their secession are prohibited.
               The state helps the areas inhabited by minority nationalities
          speed up their economic and cultural development in accordance with
          the peculiarities and needs of the different minority nationalities.
               Regional autonomy is practiced in areas where people of
          minority
          nationalities live in compact communities; in these areas organs of
          self-government are established for the exercise of the right of
          autonomy. All the national autonomous areas are inalienable parts of
          the People's Republic of China.
               The people of all nationalities have the freedom to use and
          develop their own spoken and written languages, and to preserve or
          reform their own ways and customs.
         
               Article 5
               The state upholds the uniformity and dignity of the socialist
          legal system.
               No law or administrative or local rules and regulations shall
          contravene the Constitution.
               All state organs, the armed forces, all political parties and
          public organizations and all enterprises and undertakings must abide
          by the Constitution and the law. All acts in violation of the
          Constitution and the law must be looked into.
               No organization or individual may enjoy the privilege of being
          above the Constitution and the law.
         
               Article 6
               The basis of the socialist economic system of the People's
          Republic of China is socialist public ownership of the means of
          production, namely, ownership by the whole people and collective
          ownership by the working people.
               The system of socialist public ownership supersedes the system
          of
          exploitation of man by man; it applies the principle of "from each
          according to his ability, to each according to his work."
         
               Article 7
               The state economy is the sector of socialist economy under
          ownership by the whole people; it is the leading force in the
          national
          economy. The state ensures the consolidation and growth of the state
         
          economy.
         
               Article 8
               Rural people's communes, agricultural producers' co-operatives,
         
          and other forms of co-operative economy such as producers', supply
          and
          marketing, credit and consumers' co-operatives, belong to the sector
          of
          socialist economy under collective ownership by the working people.
          Working people who are members of rural economic collectives have
          the
          right, within the limits prescribed by law, to farm plots of
          cropland
          and hilly land allotted for private use, engage in household
          sideline
          production and raise privately-owned livestock.
               The various forms of co-operative economy in the cities and
          towns,
          such as those in the handicraft, industrial, building, transport,
          commercial and service trades, all belong to the sector of socialist
          economy under collective ownership by the working people.
               The state protects the lawful rights and interests of the urban
          and rural economic collectives and encourages, guides and helps the
          growth of the collective economy.
         
               Article 9
               Mineral resources, waters, forests, mountains, grassland,
          unreclaimed land, beaches and other natural resources are owned by
          the
          state, that is, by the whole people, with the exception of the
          forests,
          mountains, grassland, unreclaimed land and beaches that are owned by
          collectives in accordance with the law.
               The state ensures the rational use of natural resources and
          protects rare animals and plants. The appropriation or damage of
          natural resources by any organization or individual by whatever
          means
          is prohibited.
         
               Article 10
               Land in the cities is owned by the state.
               Land in the rural and suburban areas is owned by collectives
          except for those portions which belong to the state in accordance
          with
          the law; house sites and privately farmed plots of cropland and
          hilly
          land are also owned by collectives.
               The state may in the public interest take over land for its use
          in
          accordance with the law.
               No organization or individual may appropriate, buy, sell or
          lease
          land, or unlawfully transfer land in other ways.
               All organizations and individuals who use land must make
          rational
          use of the land.
         
               Article 11
               The individual economy of urban and rural working people,
          operated
          within the limits prescribed by law, is a complement to the
          socialist
          public economy. The state protects the lawful rights and interests
          of
          the individual economy.
               The state guides, helps and supervises the individual economy
          by
          exercising administrative control.
         
               Article 12
               Socialist public property is sacred and inviolable.
               The state protects socialist public property. Appropriation or
          damage of state or collective property by any organization
          individual by whatever means is prohibited.
         
               Article 13
               The state protects the right of citizens to own lawfully-earned
          income, savings, houses and other lawful property.
               The state protects by law the right of citizens to inherit
          private
          property.
         
               Article 14
               The state continuously raises labour productivity, improves
          economic results and develops the productive forces by enhancing the
          enthusiasm of the working people, raising the level of their
          technical
          skill, disseminating advanced science and technology, improving the
          systems of economic administration and enterprise operation and
          management, instituting the socialist system of responsibility in
          various forms and improving organization of work.
               The state practises strict economy and combats waste.
               The state properly apportions accumulation and consumption,
          pays
          attention to the interests of the collective and the individual as
          well as of the state and, on the basis of expanded production,
          gradually improves the material and cultural life of the people.
         
               Article 15
               The state practises economic planning on the basis of socialist
          public ownership. It ensures the proportionate and co-ordinated
          growth of the national economy through overall balancing by economic
          planning and the supplementary role of regulation by the market.
               Disturbance of the orderly functioning of the social economy or
          disruption of the state economic plan by any organization or
          individual is prohibited.
         
               Article 16
               State enterprises have decision-making power in operation and
          management within the limits prescribed by law, on condition that
          they submit to unified leadership by the state and fulfil all their
          obligations under the state plan.
               State enterprises practise democratic management through
          congresses of workers and staff and in other ways in accordance with
          the law.
         
               Article 17
               Collective economic organizations have decision-making power in
          conducting independent economic activities, on condition that they
          accept the guidance of the state plan and abide by the relevant
          laws.
               Collective economic organizations practise democratic
          management
          in accordance with the law, with the entire body of their workers
          electing or removing their managerial personnel and deciding on
          major
          issues concerning operation and management.
         
               Article 18
               The People's Republic of China permits foreign enterprises,
          other
          foreign economic organizations and individual foreigners to invest
          in
          China and to enter into various forms of economic co-operation with
          Chinese enterprises and other economic organizations in accordance
          with the law of the People's Republic China.
               All foreign enterprises and other foreign economic
          organizations
          in China, as well as joint ventures with Chinese and foreign
          investment located in China, shall abide by the law of the People's
          Republic of China. Their lawful rights and interests are protected
          by
          the law of the People's Republic of China.
         
               Article 19
               The state develops socialist educational undertakings and works
          to raise the scientific and cultural level of the whole nation.
               The state runs schools of various types, makes primary
          education
          compulsory and universal, develops secondary, vocational and higher
          education and promotes pre-school education.
               The state develops educational facilities of various types in
          order to wipe out illiteracy and provide political, cultural,
          scientific, technical and professional education for workers,
          peasants, state functionaries and other working people. It
          encourages
          people to become educated through independent study.
               The state encourages the collective economic organizations,
          state
          enterprises and undertakings and other social forces to set up
          educational institutions of various types in accordance with the
          law.
               The state promotes the nationwide use of Putonghua (Common
          Speech
          based on Beijing pronunciation).
         
               Article 20
               The state promotes the development of the natural and social
          sciences, disseminates scientific and technical knowledge, and
          commends and rewards achievements in scientific research as well as
          technological discoveries and inventions.
         
               Article 21
               The state develops medical and health services, promotes modern
         
          medicine and traditional Chinese -- medicine, encourages and
          supports
          the setting-up of various medical and health facilities by the rural
          economic collectives, state enterprises and undertakings and
          neighbourhood organizations, and promotes public health activities
          of
          a mass character, all to protect the people's health.
               The state develops physical culture and promotes mass sports
          activities to build up the people's physique.
         
               Article 22
               The state promotes the development of literature and art, the
          press, broadcasting and television undertakings, publishing and
          distribution services, libraries, museums, cultural centers and
          other
          cultural undertakings, that serve the people and socialism, and
          sponsors mass cultural activities.
               The state protects places of scenic and historical interest,
          valuable cultural monuments and treasures and other important items
          of
          China's historical and cultural heritage.
         
               Article 23
               The state trains specialized personnel in all fields who serve
          socialism, increases the number of intellectuals and creates
          conditions
          to give full scope to their role in socialist modernization.
         
               Article 24
               The state strengthens the building of socialist spiritual
          civilization through spreading education in high ideals and
          morality,
          general education and education in discipline and the legal system,
          and through promoting the formulation and observance of rules of
          conduct and common pledges by different sections of the people in
          urban and rural areas.
               The state advocates the civic virtues of love of the
          motherland,
          of the people, of labour, of science and of socialism; it educates
          the
          people in patriotism, collectivism, internationalism and communism
          and
          in dialectical and historical materialism; it combats capitalist,
          feudal and other decadent ideas.
         
               Article 25
               The state promotes family planning so that population growth
          may
          fit the plan for economic and social development.
         
               Article 26
               The state protects and improves the living environment and the
          ecological environment, and prevents and remedies pollution and
          other
          public hazards.
               The state organizes and encourages afforestation and the
          protection of forests.
         
               Article 27
               All state organs carry out the principle of simple and
          efficient
          administration, the system of responsibility for work and the system
          of training functionaries and appraising their work in order
          constantly
          to improve quality of work and efficiency and combat bureaucratism.
               All state organs and functionaries must rely on the support of
          the
          people, keep in close touch with them, heed their opinions and
          suggestions, accept their supervision and work hard to serve them.
         
               Article 28
               The state maintains public order and suppresses treasonable and
          other counter-revolutionary activities; it penalizes actions that
          endanger public security and disrupt the socialist economy and other
          criminal activities, and punishes and reforms criminals.
         
               Article 29
               The armed forces of the People's Republic of China belong to
          the
          people. Their tasks are to strengthen national defence, resist
          aggression, defend the motherland, safeguard the people's peaceful
          labour, participate in national reconstruction, and work hard to
          serve
          the people.
               The state strengthens the revolutionization, modernization and
          regularization of the armed forces in order to increase the national
          defence capability.
         
               Article 30
               The administrative division of the People's Republic of China
          is
          as follows:
               (1) The country is divided into provinces, autonomous regions
          and
          municipalities directly under the Central Government;
               (2) Provinces and autonomous regions are divided into
          autonomous
          prefectures, counties, autonomous counties and cities;
               (3) Counties and autonomous counties are divided into
          townships,
          nationality townships and towns.
               Municipalities directly under the Central Government and other
          large cities are divided into districts and counties. Autonomous
          prefectures are divided into counties, autonomous counties and
          cities.
               All autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous
          counties are national autonomous areas.
         
               Article 31
               The state may establish special administrative regions when
          necessary. The systems to be instituted in special administrative
          regions shall be prescribed by law enacted by the National People's
          Congress in the light of the specific conditions.
         
               Article 32
               The People's Republic of China protects the lawful rights and
          interests of foreigners within Chinese territory, and while on
          Chinese territory foreigners must abide by the law of the People's
          Republic of China.
               The People's Republic of China may grant asylum to foreigners
          who
          request it for political reasons.
         
         
                                   CHAPTER TWO
         
                   THE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF CITlZENS
         
               Article 33
               All persons holding the nationality of the People's Republic of
          China are citizens of the People's Republic of China.
               All citizens of the People's Republic of China are equal before
          the law.
               Every citizen enjoys the rights and at the same time must
          perform
          the duties prescribed by the Constitution and the law.
         
               Article 34
               All citizens of the People's Republic of China who have reached
          the age of 18 have the right to vote and stand for election,
          regardless
          of nationality, race, sex, occupation, family background, religious
          belief, education, property status, or length of residence, except
          persons deprived of political rights according to law.
         
               Article 35
               Citizens of the People's Republic of China enjoy freedom of
          speech, of the press, of assembly, of association, of procession and
          of demonstration.
         
               Article 36
               Citizens of the People's Republic of China enjoy freedom of
          religious belief.
               No state organ, public organization or individual may compel
          citizens to believe in, or not to believe in, any religion; nor may
          they discriminate against citizens who believe in, or do not believe
          in, any religion.
               The state protects normal religious activities. No one may make
          use of religion to engage in activities that disrupt public order,
          impair the health of citizens or interfere with the educational
          system
          of the state.
               Religious bodies and religious affairs are not subject to any
          foreign domination.
         
               Article 37
               The freedom of person of citizens of the People's Republic of
          China is inviolable.
               No citizen may be arrested except with the approval or by
          decision
          of a people's procuratorate or by decision of a people's court, and
          arrests must be made by a public security organ.
               Unlawful deprivation or restriction of citizens' freedom of
          person
          by detention or other means is prohibited; and unlawful search of
          the
          person of citizens is prohibited.
         
               Article 38
               The personal dignity of citizens of the People's Republic of
          China
          is inviolable. Insult, libel, false charge or frame-up directed
          against
          citizens by any means is prohibited.
         
               Article 39
               The home of citizens of the People's Republic of China is
          inviolable. Unlawful search of, or intrusion into, a citizen's home
          is
          prohibited.
         
               Article 40
               The freedom and privacy of correspondence of citizens of the
          People's Republic of China are protected by law. No organization or
          individual may, on any ground, infringe upon the freedom and privacy
          of
          citizens' correspondence except in cases where, to meet the needs of
          state security or of investigation into criminal offences, public
          security or procuratorial organs are permitted to censor
          correspondence
          in accordance with procedures prescribed by law.
         
               Article 41
               Citizens of the People's Republic of China have the right to
          criticize and make suggestions to any state organ or functionary.
          Citizens have the right to make to relevant state organs complaints
          and
          charges against, or exposures of, any state organ or functionary for
          violation of the law or dereliction of duty; but fabrication or
          distortion of facts for the purpose of libel or frame-up is
          prohibited.
               The state organ concerned must deal with complaints, charges or
          exposures made by citizens in a responsible manner after
          ascertaining
          the facts. No one may suppress such complaints, charges and
          exposures,
          or retaliate against the citizens making them.
               Citizens who have suffered losses through infringement of their
          civic rights by any state organ or functionary have the right to
          compensation in accordance with the law.
         
               Article 42
               Citizens of the People's Republic of China have the right as
          well
          as the duty to work.
               Using various channels, the state creates conditions for
          employment, strengthens labour protection, improves working
          conditions
          and, on the basis of expanded production, increases remuneration for
          work and social benefits.
               Work is the glorious duty of every able-bodied citizen. All
          working people in state enterprises and in urban and rural economic
          collectives should perform their tasks with an attitude consonant
          with
          their status as masters of the country. The state promotes socialist
          labour emulation, and commends and rewards model and advanced
          workers.
          The state encourages citizens to take part in voluntary labour.
               The state provides necessary vocational training to citizens
          before they are employed.
         
               Article 43
               Working people in the People's Republic of China have the right
          to
          rest.
               The state expands facilities for rest and recuperation of
          working
          people, and prescribes working hours and vacations for workers and
          staff.
         
               Article 44
               The state prescribes by law the system of retirement for
          workers
          and staff in enterprises and undertakings and for functionaries of
          organs of state. The livelihood of retired personnel is ensured by
          the
          state and society.
         
               Article 45
               Citizens of the People's Republic of China have the right to
          material assistance from the state and society when they are old,
          ill
          or disabled. The state develops the social insurance, social relief
          and medical and health services that are required to enable citizens
          to enjoy this right.
               The state and society ensure the livelihood of disabled members
          of
          the armed forces, provide pensions for the families of martyrs and
          give preferential treatment to the families of military personnel.
               The state and society help make arrangements for the work,
          livelihood and education of the blind, deaf-mutes and other
          handicapped citizens.
         
               Article 46
               Citizens of the People's Republic of China have the duty as
          well
          as the right to receive education.
               The state promotes the all-round moral, intellectual and
          physical
          development of children and young people.
         
               Article 47
               Citizens of the People's Republic of China have the freedom to
          engage in scientific research, literary and artistic creation and
          other cultural pursuits. The state encourages and assists creative
          endeavours conducive to the interests of the people that are made by
          citizens engaged in education, science, technology, literature, art
          and other cultural work.
         
               Article 48
               Women in the People's Republic of China enjoy equal rights with
          men in all spheres of life, political, economic, cultural and
          social,
          including family life.
               The state protects the rights and interests of women, applies
          the
          principle of equal pay for equal work for men and women alike and
          trains and selects cadres from among women.
         
               Article 49
               Marriage, the family and mother and child are protected by the
          state.
               Both husband and wife have the duty to practise family
          planning.
               Parents have the duty to rear and educate their minor children,
          and children who have come of age have the duty to support and
          assist
          their parents.
               Violation of the freedom of marriage is prohibited.
          Maltreatment
          of old people, women and children is prohibited.
         
               Article 50
               The People's Republic of China protects the legitimate rights
          and interests of Chinese nationals residing abroad and protects the
          lawful rights and interests of returned overseas Chinese and of the
          family members of Chinese nationals residing abroad.
         
               Article 51
               The exercise by citizens of the People's Republic of China of
          their freedoms and rights may not infringe upon the interests of
          the state, of society and of the collective, or upon the lawful
          freedoms and rights of other citizens.
         
               Article 52
               It is the duty of citizens of the People's Republic of China to
          safeguard the unity of the country and the unity of all its
          nationalities.
         
               Article 53
               Citizens of the People's Republic of China must abide by the
          Constitution and the law, keep state secrets, protect public
          property
          and observe labour discipline and public order and respect social
          ethics.
         
               Article 54
               It is the duty of citizens of the People's Republic of China to
          safeguard the security, honour and interests of the motherland; they
          must not commit acts detrimental to the security, honour and
          interests of the motherland.
         
               Article 55
               It is the sacred obligation of every citizen of the People's
          Republic of China to defend the motherland and resist aggression.
               It is the honourable duty of citizens of the People's Republic
          of
          China to perform military service and join the militia in accordance
          with the law.
         
               Article 56
              It is the duty of citizens of the People's Republic of China to
          pay taxes in accordance with the law.
         
         
                                    CHAPTER THREE
         
                              THE STRUCTURE OF THE STATE
         
                                      SECTION I
                            The National People's Congress
         
               Article 57
               The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of
          China is the highest organ of state power. Its permanent body is
          the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.
         
               Article 58
               The National People's Congress and its Standing Committee
          exercise the legislative power of the state.
         
               Article 59
               The National People's Congress is composed of deputies elected
          by
          the provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under
          the Central Government, and by the armed forces. All the minority
          nationalities are entitled to appropriate representation.
               Election of deputies to the National People's Congress is
          conducted by the Standing Committee of the National People's
          Congress.
               The number of deputies to the National People's Congress and
          the
          manner of their election are prescribed by law.
         
               Article 60
               The National People's Congress is elected for a term of five
          years.
               Two months before the expiration of the term of office of a
          National People's Congress, its Standing Committee must ensure that
          the election of deputies to the succeeding National People's
          Congress
          is completed. Should exceptional circumstances prevent such an
          election, it may be postponed by decision of a majority vote of more
          than two-thirds of all those on the Standing Committee of the
          current
          National People's Congress and the term of office of the current
          National People's Congress may be extended. The election of deputies
          to the succeeding National People's Congress must be completed
          within
          one year after the termination of such exceptional circumstances.
         
               Article 61
               The National People's Congress meets in session once a year and
          is convened by its Standing Committee. A session of the National
          People's Congress may be convened at any time the Standing Committee
          deems this necessary, or when more than one-fifth of the deputies to
          the National People's Congress so propose.
               When the National People's Congress meets, it elects a
          presidium
          to conduct its session.
         
               Article 62
               The National People's Congress exercises the following
          functions
          and powers:
               (1) to amend the Constitution;
               (2) to supervise the enforcement of the Constitution;
               (3) to enact and amend basic statutes concerning criminal
          offences, civil affairs, the state organs and other matters;
               (4) to elect the President and the Vice-President of the
          People's
          Republic of China;
               (5) to decide on the choice of the Premier of the State Council
          upon nomination by the President of the People's Republic of China,
          and to decide on the choice of the Vice-Premiers, State Councillors,
          Ministers in charge of ministries or commissions and the
          Auditor-General and the Secretary-General of the State Council upon
          nomination by the Premier;
               (6) to elect the Chairman of the Central Military Commission
          and,
          upon nomination by the Chairman, to decide on the choice of all the
          others on the Central Military Commission;
               (7) to elect the President of the Supreme People's Court;
               (8) to elect the Procurator-General of the Supreme People's
          Procuratorate;
               (9) to examine and approve the plan for national ' economic and
          social development and the report on its implementation;
               (10) to examine and approve the state budget and the report on
          its
          implementation;
               (11) to alter or annul inappropriate decisions of the Standing
          Committee of the National People's Congress;
               (12) to approve the establishment of provinces, autonomous
          regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government;
               (13) to decide on the establishment of special administrative
          regions and the systems to be instituted there;
               (14) to decide on questions of war and peace; and
               (15) to exercise such other functions and powers as the highest
          organ of state power should excretes.
         
               Article 63
               The National People's Congress has the power to recall or
          remove
          from office the following persons:
               (1) the President and the Vice-President of the People's
          Republic
          of China;
               (2) the Premier, Vice-Premiers, State Councillors, Ministers in
          charge of ministries or commissions and the Auditor-General and the
          Secretary-General of the State Council;
               (3) the Chairman of the Central Military Commission and others
          on
          the Commission;
               (4) the President of the Supreme People's Court; and
               (5) the Procurator-General of the Supreme People's
          Procuratorate.
         
               Article 64
               Amendments to the Constitution are to be proposed by the
          Standing
          Committee of the National People's Congress or by more than
          one-fifth
          of the deputies to the National People's Congress and adopted by a
          majority vote of more than two-thirds of all the deputies to the
          Congress.
               Statutes and resolutions are adopted by a majority vote of more
          than one half of all the deputies to the National People's Congress.
         
               Article 65
               The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress is
          composed of the following:
               the Chairman;
               the Vice-Chairmen;
               the Secretary-General; and
               members.
               Minority nationalities are entitled to appropriate
          representation
          on the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.
               The National People's Congress elects, and has the power to
          recall, all those on its Standing Committee.
               No one on the Standing Committee of the National People's
          Congress
          shall hold any post in any of the administrative, judicial or
          procuratorial organs of the state.
         
               Article 66
               The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress is
          elected for the same term as the National People's Congress; it
          exercises its functions and powers until a new Standing Committee is
          elected by the succeeding National People's Congress.
               The Chairman and Vice-Chairmen of the Standing Committee shall
          serve no more than two consecutive terms.
         
               Article 67
               The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress
          exercises
          the following functions and powers:
               (1) to interpret the Constitution and supervise its
          enforcement;
               (2) to enact and amend statutes with the exception of those
          which
          should be enacted by the National People's Congress;
               (3) to enact, when the National People's Congress is not in
          session, partial supplements and amendments to statutes enacted by
          the
          National People's Congress provided that they do not contravene the
          basic principles of these statutes;
               (4) to interpret statutes;
               (5) to examine and approve, when the National People's Congress
          is
          not id session, partial adjustments to the plan for national
          economic
          and social development and to the state budget that prove necessary
          in
          the course of their implementation;
               (6) to supervise the work of the State Council, the Central
          Military Commission, the Supreme People's Court and the Supreme
          People's Procuratorate;
               (7) to annul those administrative rules and regulations,
          decisions
          or orders of the State Council that contravene the Constitution or
          the
          statutes;
               (8) to annul those local regulations or decisions of the organs
          of
          state power of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities
          directly under the Central Government that contravene the
          Constitution, the statutes or the administrative rules and
          regulations;
               (9) to decide, when the National People's Congress is not in
          session, on the choice of Ministers in charge of ministries or
          commissions or the Auditor-General and the Secretary-General of the
          State Council upon nomination by the Premier of the State Council;
               (10) to decide, upon nomination by the Chairman of the Central
          Military Commission, on the choice of others on the Commission, when
          the National People's Congress is not in session;
               (11) to appoint and remove Vice-Presidents and judges of the
          Supreme People's Court, members of its Judicial Committee and the
          President of the Military Court at the suggestion of the President
          of
          the Supreme People's Court;
               (12) to appoint and remove Deputy Procurators-General and
          procurators of the Supreme People's Procuratorate, members of its
          Procuratorial Committee and the Chief Procurator of the Military
          Procuratorate at the suggestion of the Procurator-General of the
          Supreme People's Procuratorate, and to approve the appointment and
          removal of the chief procurators of the people's procuratorates of
          provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the
          Central Government;
               (13) to decide on the appointment and recall of plenipotentiary
          representatives abroad;
               (14) to decide on the ratification and abrogation of treaties
          and
          important agreements concluded with foreign states;
               (15) to institute systems of titles and ranks for military and
          diplomatic personnel and of other specific titles and ranks;
               (16) to institute state medals and titles of honour and decide
          on
          their conferment;
               (17) to decide on the granting of special pardons;
               (18) to decide, when the National People's Congress is not in
          session, on the proclamation of a state of war in the event of an
          armed attack on the country or in fulfilment of international treaty
          obligations concerning common defence against aggression;
               (19) to decide on general mobilization or partial mobilization;
               (20) to decide on the enforcement of martial law throughout the
          country or in particular provinces, autonomous regions or
          municipalities directly under the Central Government; and
               (21) to exercise such other functions and powers as the
          National
          People's Congress may assign to it.
         
               Article 68
               The Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's
          Congress presides over the work of the Standing Committee and
          convenes its meetings. the Vice-Chairmen and the Secretary-General
          assist in the work of the Chairman.
               Executive meetings with the participation of the -- Chairman,
          Vice-Chairmen and Secretary-General handle the important day-to-day
          work of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.
         
               Article 69
               The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress is
          responsible to the National People's Congress and reports on its
          work to the Congress.
         
               Article 70
               The National People's Congress establishes a Nationalities
          Committee, a Law Committee, a Financial and Economic Committee, an
          Education, Science, Culture and Public Health Committee, a Foreign
          Affairs Committee, an Overseas Chinese Committee and such other
          special committees as are necessary. These special committees work
          under the direction of the Standing Committee of the National
          People's Congress when the Congress is not in session.
               The special committees examine, discuss and draw up relevant
          bills
          and draft resolutions under the direction of the National People's
          Congress and its Standing Committee.
         
               Article 71
               The National People's Congress and its Standing Committee may,
          when they deem it necessary, appoint committees of inquiry into
          specific questions and adopt relevant resolutions in the light of
          their reports.
               All organs of state, public organizations and citizens
          concerned
          are obliged to supply the necessary information to those committees
          of
          inquiry when they conduct investigations.
         
               Article 72
               Deputies to the National People's Congress and all those on its
          Standing Committee have the right, in accordance with procedures
          prescribed by law, to submit bills and proposals within the scope of
          the respective functions and powers of the National People's
          Congress
          and its Standing Committee.
         
               Article 73
               Deputies to the National People's Congress during its sessions,
          and all those on its Standing Committee during its meetings, have
          the
          right to address questions, in accordance with procedures prescribed
          by law, to the State Council or the ministries and commissions under
          the State Council, which must answer the questions in a responsible
          manner.
         
               Article 74
               No deputy to the National People's Congress may be arrested or
          placed on criminal trial without the consent of the Presidium of the
          current session of the National People's Congress or, when the
          National People's Congress is not in session, without the consent of
          its Standing Committee.
         
               Article 75
               Deputies to the National People's Congress may not be called to
          legal account for their speeches or votes at its meetings.
         
               Article 76
               Deputies to the National People's Congress must play an
          exemplary
          role in abiding by the Constitution and the law and keeping state
          secrets and, in production and other work and their public
          activities,
          assist in the enforcement of the Constitution and the law.
               Deputies to the National People's Congress should maintain
          close
          contact with the units which elected them and with the people,
          listen
          to and convey the opinions and demands of the people and work hard
          to
          serve them.
         
               Article 77
               Deputies to the National People's Congress are subject to the
          supervision of the units which elected them. The electoral units
          have
          the power, through procedures prescribed by law, to recall deputies
          whom they elected.
         
               Article 78
               The organization and working procedures of the National
          People's
          Congress and its Standing Committee are prescribed by law.
         
                                      SECTION II
                   The President of the People's Republic of China
         
               Article 79
               The President and Vice-President of the People's Republic of
          China are elected by the National People's Congress.
               Citizens of the People's Republic of China who have the right
          to
          vote and to stand for election and who have reached the age of 45
          are
          eligible for election as President or Vice-President of the People's
          Republic of China.
               The term of office of the President and Vice-President of the
          People's Republic of China is the same as that of the National
          People's Congress, and they shall serve no more than two consecutive
          terms.
         
               Article 80
               The President of the People's Republic of China, in pursuance
          of
          decisions of the National People's Congress and its Standing
          Committee, promulgates statutes; appoints and removes the Premier,
          Vice-Premiers, State Councillors, Ministers in charge of ministries
          or commissions, and the Auditor-General and the Secretary-General of
          the State Council; confers state medals and titles of honour; issues
          orders of special pardons; proclaims martial law; proclaims a state
          of war; and issues mobilization orders.
         
               Article 81
               The President of People's Republic of China receives foreign
          diplomatic representatives on behalf of the People's Republic of
          China and, in pursuance of decisions of the Standing Committee of
          the National People's Congress, appoints and recalls plenipotentiary
          representatives abroad, and ratifies and abrogates treaties and
          important agreements concluded with foreign states.
         
               Article 82
               The Vice-President of the People's Republic of China assists in
          the work of the President.
               The Vice-President of the People's Republic of China may
          exercise
          such parts of the functions and powers of the President as may be
          deputed by the President.
         
               Article 83
               The President and Vice-President of the People's Republic of
          China exercise their functions and powers until the new President
          and Vice-President elected by the succeeding National People's
          Congress assume office.
         
               Article 84
               In case the office of the President of the People's Republic of
          China falls vacant, the Vice-President succeeds to the office of
          President.
               In case the office of the Vice-President of the People's
          Republic
          of China falls vacant, the National People's Congress shall elect a
          new Vice-President to fill the vacancy.
               In the event that the offices of both the President and the
          Vice-President of the People's Republic of China fall vacant, the
          National People's Congress shall elect a new President and a new
          Vice-President. Prior to such election, the Chairman of the Standing
          Committee of the National People's Congress shall temporarily act as
          the President of the People's Republic of China.
         
                                  SECTION III
                               The State Council
         
               Article 85
               The State Council, that is, the Central People's Government, of
          the People's Republic of China is the executive body of the highest
          organ of state power; it is the highest organ of state
          administration.
         
               Article 86
               The State Council is composed of the following:
               the Premier;
               the Vice-Premiers;
               the State Councillors;
               the Ministers in charge of ministries;
               the Ministers in charge of commissions;
               the Auditor-General; and
               the Secretary-General.
               The Premier has overall responsibility for the State Council.
          The
          ministers have overall responsibility for the ministries or
          commissions under their charge.
               The organization of the State Council is prescribed by law.
         
               Article 87
               The term of office of the State Council is the same as that of
          the National People's Congress.
               The Premier, Vice-Premiers and State Councillors shall serve no
          more than two consecutive terms.
         
               Article 88
               The Premier directs the work of the State Council. The Vice-
          Premiers and State Councillors assist in the work of the Premier.
               Executive meetings of the State Council are composed of the
          Premier, the Vice-Premiers, the State Councillors and the Secretary-
          General of the State Council.
               The Premier convenes and presides over the executive meetings
          and
          plenary meetings of the State Council.
         
               Article 89
               The State Council exercises the following functions and powers:
               (1) to adopt administrative measures, enact administrative
          rules
          and regulations and issue decisions and orders in accordance with
          the
          Constitution and the statutes;
               (2) to submit proposals to the National People's Congress or
          its
          Standing Committee;
               (3) to lay down the tasks and responsibilities of the
          ministries
          and commissions of the State Council, to exercise unified leadership
          over the work of the ministries and commissions and to direct all
          other administrative work of a national character that does not fall
          within the jurisdiction of the ministries and commissions;
               (4) to exercise unified leadership over the work of local
          organs
          of state administration at different levels throughout the country,
          and to lay down the detailed division of functions and powers
          between
          the Central Government and the organs of state administration of
          provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities;
               (5) to draw up and implement the plan for national economic and
          social development and the state budget;
               (6) to direct and administer economic affairs and urban and
          rural
          development;
               (7) to direct and administer affairs of education, science,
          culture, public health, physical culture and family planning;
               (8) to direct and administer civil affairs, public security,
          judicial administration, supervision and other related matters;
               (9) to conduct foreign affairs and conclude treaties and
          agreements with foreign states;
               (10) to direct and administer the building of national defence;
               (11) to direct and administer affairs concerning the
          nationalities, and to safeguard the equal rights of minority
          nationalities and the right- of autonomy of the national autonomous
          areas;
               (12) to protect the legitimate rights and interests of Chinese
          nationals residing abroad and protect the lawful rights and
          interests
          of returned overseas Chinese and of the family members of Chinese
          nationals residing abroad;
               (l3) to alter or annul inappropriate orders, directives and
          regulations issued by the ministries or commissions;
               (14) to alter or annul inappropriate decisions and orders
          issued
          by local organs of state administration at different levels;
               (15) to approve the geographic division of provinces,
          autonomous
          regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government,
          and
          to approve the establishment and geographic division of autonomous
          prefectures, counties, autonomous counties and cities;
               (16) to decide on the enforcement of martial law in parts of
          provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the
          Central Government;
               (17) to examine and decide on the size of administrative organs
          and, in accordance with the law, to appoint, remove and train
          administrative officers, appraise their work and reward or punish
          them; and
               (18) to exercise such other functions and powers as the
          National
          People's Congress or its Standing Committee may assign it.
         
               Article 90
               The Ministers in charge of ministries or commissions of the
          State Council are responsible for the work of their respective
          departments and convene and preside over ministerial meetings or
          commission meetings that discuss and decide on major issues in the
          work of their respective departments.
               The ministries and commissions issue orders, directives and
          regulations within the jurisdiction of their respective departments
          and in accordance with the statutes and the administrative rules and
          regulations, decisions and orders issued by the State Council.
         
               Article 91
               The State Council establishes an auditing body to supervise
          through auditing the revenue and expenditure of all departments
          under the State Council and of the local governments at different
          levels, and those of the state financial and monetary organizations
          and of enterprises and undertakings.
               Under the direction of the Premier of the State Council, the
          auditing body independently exercises its power to supervise through
          auditing in accordance with the law, subject to no interference by
          any
          other administrative organ or any public organization or individual.
         
               Article 92
               The State Council is responsible, and reports on its work, to
          the National People's Congress or, when the National People's
          Congress
          is not in session, to its Standing Committee.
         
                                   SECTION IV
                         The Central Military Commission
         
               Article 93 The Central Military Commission of the People's
          Republic of China directs the armed forces of the country.
               The Central Military Commission is composed of the following:
               the Chairman;
               the Vice-Chairmen; and
               members.
               The Chairman of the Central Military Commission has overall
          responsibility for the Commission.
               The term of office of the Central Military Commission is the
          same
          as that of the National People's Congress.
         
               Article 94
               The Chairman of the Central Military Commission is responsible
          to the National People's Congress and its Standing Committee.
         
                                   SECTION V
                   The Local People's Congresses and the Local
                   People's Governments at Different Levels
         
               Article 95
               People's congresses and people's governments are established in
          provinces, municipalities directly under the Central Government,
          counties, cities, municipal districts, townships, nationality
          townships and towns.
               The organization of local people's congresses and local
          people's
          governments at different levels is prescribed by law.
               Organs of self-government are established in autonomous
          regions,
          autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties. The organization and
          working procedures of organs of self-government are prescribed by
          law
          in accordance with the basic principles laid down in Sections V and
          V1
          of Chapter Three of the Constitution.
         
               Article 96
               Local people's congresses at different levels are local organs
          of
          state power.
               Local people's congresses at and above the county level
          establish
          standing committees.
         
               Article 97
               Deputies to the people's congresses of provinces,
          municipalities
          directly under the Central Government, and cities divided into
          districts are elected by the people's congresses at the next lower
          level; deputies to the people's congresses of counties, cities not
          divided into districts, municipal districts, townships, nationality
          townships and towns are elected directly by their constituencies.
               The number of deputies to local people's congresses at
          different
          levels and the manner of their election are prescribed by law.
         
               Article 98
               The term of office of the people's congresses of provinces,
          municipalities directly under the Central Government and cities
          divided into districts is five years. The term of office of the
          people's congresses of counties, cities not divided into districts,
          municipal districts, townships, nationality townships and towns is
          three years.
         
               Article 99
               Local people's congresses at different levels ensure the
          observance and implementation of the Constitution, the statutes and
          the administrative rules and regulations in their respective
          administrative areas. Within the limits of their authority as
          prescribed by law, they adopt and issue resolutions and examine and
          decide on plans for local economic and cultural development and for
          the development of public services.
               Local people's congresses at and above the county level examine
          and approve the plans for economic and social development and the
          budgets of their respective administrative areas, and examine and
          approve reports on their implementation. They have the power to
          alter
          or annul inappropriate decisions of their own standing committees.
               The people's congresses of nationality townships may, within
          the
          limits of their authority as prescribed by law, take specific
          measures
          suited to the peculiarities of the nationalities concerned.
         
               Article 100
               The people's congresses of provinces and municipalities
          directly
          under the Central Government, and their standing committees, may
          adopt local regulations, which must not contravene the Constitution,
          the statutes and the administrative rules and regulations, and they
          shall report such local regulations to the Standing Committee of the
          National People's Congress for the record.
         
               Article 101
               At their respective levels, local people's congresses elect,
          and
          have the power to recall, governors and deputy governors, or mayors
          and deputy mayors, or heads and deputy heads of counties, districts,
          townships, and towns.
               Local people's congresses at and above the county level elect,
          and
          have the power to recall, presidents of people's courts and chief
          procurators of people's procuratorates at the corresponding level.
          The
          election or recall of chief procurators of people's procuratorates
          shall be. reported to the chief procurators of the people's
          procuratorates at the next higher level for submission to the
          standing
          committees of the people's congresses at the corresponding level for
          approval.
         
               Article 102
               Deputies to the people's congresses of provinces,
          municipalities
          directly under the Central Government and cities divided into
          districts are subject to supervision by the units which elected
          them;
          deputies to the people's congresses of counties, cities not divided
          into districts, municipal districts, townships, nationality
          townships
          and towns are subject to supervision by their constituencies.
               The electoral units and constituencies which elect deputies to
          local people's congresses at different levels have the power,
          according to procedures prescribed by law, to recall deputies whom
          they elected.
         
               Article 103
               The standing committee of a local people's congress at and
          above
          the county level is composed of a chairman, vice-chairmen and
          members,
          and is responsible, and reports on its work, to the people's
          congress
          at the corresponding level.
               The local people's congress at and above the county level
          elects,
          and has the power to recall, anyone on the standing committee of the
          people's congress at the corresponding level.
               No one on the standing committee of a local people's congress
          at
          and above the county level shall hold any post in state
          administrative, judicial and procuratorial organs.
         
               Article 104
               The standing committee of a local people's congress at and
          above
          the county level discusses and decides on major issues in all fields
          of work in its administrative area; supervises the work of the
          people's government, people's court and people's procuratorate at
          the
          corresponding level; annuls inappropriate decisions and orders of
          the
          people's government at the corresponding level; annuls inappropriate
          decisions and orders of the people's government at the corresponding
          level; annuls inappropriate resolutions of the people's congress at
          the next lower level; decides on the appointment and removal of
          functionaries of state organs within the limits of its authority as
          prescribed by law; and, when the people's congress at the
          corresponding level is not in session, recalls individual deputies
          to
          the people's congress at the next higher level and elects individual
          deputies to fill vacancies in that people's congress.
         
               Article 105
               Local people's governments at different levels are the
          executive
          bodies of local organs of state power as well as the local organs of
          state administration at the corresponding level.
               Local people's governments at different levels practise the
          system
          of overall responsibility by governors, mayors, county heads,
          district
          heads, township heads and town heads.
         
               Article 106
               The term of office of local people's governments at different
          levels is the same as that of the people's congresses at the
          corresponding level.
         
               Article 107
               Local people's governments at and above the county level,
          within
          the limits of their authority as prescribed by law, conduct the
          administrative work concerning the economy, education, science,
          culture, public health, physical culture, urban and rural
          development,
          finance, civil affairs, public security, nationalities affairs,
          judicial administration, supervision and family planning in their
          respective administrative areas; issue decisions and orders;
          appoint,
          remove and train administrative functionaries, appraise their work
          and reward or punish them.
               People's governments of townships, nationality townships and
          towns
          carry out the resolutions of the people's congress at the
          corresponding level as well as the decisions and orders of the state
          administrative organs at the next higher level and conduct
          administrative work in their respective administrative areas.
               People's governments of provinces and municipalities directly
          under the Central Government decide on the establishment and
          geographic division of townships, nationality townships and towns.
         
               Article 1O8
               Local people's governments at and above the county level direct
          the work of their subordinate departments and of people's
          governments
          at lower levels, and have the power to alter or annul inappropriate
          decisions of their subordinate departments and people's governments
          at lower levels.
         
               Article 109
               Auditing bodies are established by local people's governments
          at
          and above the county level. Local auditing bodies at different
          levels
          independently exercise their power to supervise through auditing in
          accordance with the law and are responsible to the people's
          government
          at the corresponding level and to the auditing body at the next
          higher
          level.
         
               Article 110
               Local people's governments at different levels are responsible,
          and report on their work, to people's congresses at the
          corresponding
          level. Local people's governments at and above the county level are
          responsible, and report on their work, to the standing committee of
          the people's congress at the corresponding level when the congress
          is not in session.
               Local people's governments at different levels are responsible,
          and report on their work, to the state administrative organs at the
          next higher level. Local people's governments at different levels
          throughout the country are state administrative organs under the
          unified leadership of the State Council and are subordinate to it.
         
               Article 111
               The residents' committees and villagers' committees established
          among urban and rural residents on the basis of their place of
          residence are mass organizations of self-management at the grass-
          roots level. The chairman, vice-chairmen and members of each
          residents' or villagers' committee are elected by the residents. The
          relationship between the residents' and villagers' committees and
          the
          grass-roots organs of state power is prescribed by law.
               The residents' and villagers' committees establish committees
          for
          people's mediation, public security, public health and other matters
          in order to manage public affairs and social services in their
          areas,
          mediate civil disputes, help maintain public order and convey
          residents' opinions and demands and make suggestions to the people's
          government.
         
                                     SECTION VI
               The Organs of Self-Government of National Autonomous Areas
         
               Article 112
               The organs of self-government of national autonomous areas are
          the people's congresses and people's governments of autonomous
          regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties.
         
               Article 113
               In the people's congress of an autonomous region, prefecture or
          county, in addition to the deputies of the nationality or
          nationalities exercising regional autonomy in the administrative
          area,
          the other nationalities inhabiting the area are also entitled to
          appropriate representation.
               The chairmanship and vice-chairmanships of the standing
          committee
          of the people's congress of an autonomous region, prefecture or
          county
          shall include a citizen or citizens of the nationality or
          nationalities exercising regional autonomy in the area concerned.
         
               Article 114
               The administrative head of an autonomous region, prefecture or
          county shall be a citizen of the nationality, or of one of the
          nationalities, exercising regional autonomy in the area concerned.
         
               Article 115
               The organs of self-government of autonomous regions,
          prefectures
          and counties exercise the functions and powers of local organs of
          state as specified in Section V of Chapter Three of the
          Constitution.
          At the same time, they exercise the power of autonomy within the
          limits of their authority as prescribed by the Constitution, the law
          of regional national autonomy and other laws, and implement the laws
          and policies of the state in the light of the existing local
          situation.
         
               Article 116
               People's congresses of national autonomous areas have the power
          to
          enact autonomy regulations and specific regulations in the light of
          the political, economic and cultural characteristics of the
          nationality
          or nationalities in the areas concerned. The autonomy regulations
          and
          specific regulations of autonomous regions shall be submitted to the
          Standing Committee of the National People's Congress for approval
          before they go into effect. Those of autonomous prefectures and
          counties shall be submitted to the standing committees of the
          people's
          congresses of provinces or autonomous regions for approval before
          they
          go into effect, and they shall be reported to the Standing Committee
          of the National People's Congress for the record.
         
               Article 117
               The organs of self-government of the national autonomous areas
          have the power of autonomy in administering the finances of their
          areas. All revenues accruing to the national autonomous areas under
          the financial system of the state shall be managed and used by the
          organs of self-government of those areas on their own.
         
               Article 118
               The organs of self-government of the national autonomous areas
          independently arrange for and administer local economic development
          under the guidance of state plans.
               In exploiting natural resources and building enterprises in the
          national autonomous areas, the state shall give due consideration to
          the interests of those areas.
         
               Article 119
               The organs of self-government of the national autonomous areas
          independently administer educational, scientific, cultural, public
          health and physical culture affairs in their respective areas,
          protect and cull through the cultural heritage of the nationalities
          and work for the development and flourishing of their cultures.
         
               Article 120
               The organs of self-government of the national autonomous areas
          may, in accordance with the military system of the state and
          concrete
          local needs and with the approval of the State Council, organize
          local public security forces for the maintenance of public order.
         
               Article 121
               In performing their functions, the organs- of self-government
          of
          the national autonomous areas, in accordance with autonomy
          regulations of the respective areas, employ the spoken and written
          language or languages in common use in the locality.
         
               Article 122
               The state gives financial, material and technical assistance to
          the minority nationalities to accelerate their economic and cultural
          development.
               The state helps the national autonomous areas train large
          numbers
          of cadres at different levels and specialized personnel and skilled
          workers of different professions and trades from among the
          nationality
          or nationalities in those areas.
         
         
                                 SECTION VII
               The People's Courts and the People's Procuratorates
         
               Article 123
               The people's courts in the People's Republic of China are the
          judicial organs of the state.
         
               Article 124
               The People's Republic of China establishes the Supreme People's
          Court and the local people's courts at different levels, military
          courts and other special people's courts.
               The term of office of the President of the Supreme People's
          Court
          is the same as that of the National People's Congress; the President
          shall serve no more than two consecutive terms.
               The organization of people's courts is prescribed by law.
         
               Article 125
               All cases handled by the people's courts, except for those
          involving special circumstances as specified by law, shall be heard
          in public. The accused has the right of defence.
         
               Article 126
               The people's courts shall, in accordance with the law, exercise
          judicial power independently and are not subject to interference by
          administrative organs, public organizations or individuals.
         
               Article 127
               The Supreme People's Court is the highest judicial organ.
               The Supreme People's Court supervises the administration of
          justice
          by the local people's courts at different levels and by the special
          people's courts; people's courts at higher levels supervise the
          administration of justice by those at lower levels.
         
               Article 128
               The Supreme People's Court is responsible to the National
          People's Congress and its Standing Committee. Local people's courts
          at different levels are responsible to the organs of state power
          which created them.
         
               Article 129
               The people's procuratorates of the People's Republic of China
          are
          state organs for legal supervision.
         
               Article 130
               The People's Republic of China establishes the Supreme People's
          Procuratorate and the local people's procuratorates at different
          levels, military procuratorates and other special people's
          procuratorates.
               The term of office of the Procurator-General of the Supreme
          People's Procuratorate is the same as that of the National People's
          Congress; the Procurator-General shall serve no more than two
          consecutive terms,
               The organization of the people's procuratorates is prescribed
          by
          law.
         
               Article 131
               People's procuratorates shall, in accordance with the law,
          exercise procuratorial power independently and are not subject to
          interference by administrative organs, public organizations or
          individuals.
         
               Article 132
              The Supreme People's Procuratorate is the highest procuratorial
          organ.
               The Supreme People's Procuratorate directs the work of the
          local
          people's procuratorates at different levels and of the special
          people's procuratorates; people's procuratorates at higher levels
          direct the work of those at lower levels.
         
               Article 133
               The Supreme People's Procuratorate is responsible to the
          National
          People's Congress and its Standing Committee. Local people's
          procuratorates at different levels are responsible to the organs of
          state power at the corresponding levels which created them and to
          the people's procuratorates at the higher level.
         
               Article 134
               Citizens of all nationalities have the right to use the spoken
          and written languages of their own nationalities in court
          proceedings.
          The people's courts and people's procuratorates should provide
          translation for any party to the court proceedings who is not
          familiar
          with the spoken or written languages in common use in the locality.
               In an area where people of a minority nationality live in a
          compact community or where a number of nationalities live together,
          hearings should be conducted in the language or languages in common
          use in the locality; indictments, judgements, notices and other
          documents should be written, according to actual needs, in the
          language or languages in common use in the locality.
         
               Article 135
               The people's courts, people's procuratorates and public
          security
          organs shall, in handling criminal cases, divide their functions,
          each taking responsibility for its own work, and they shall
          co-ordinate their efforts and check each other to ensure correct and
          effective enforcement of law.
         
                                    CHAPTER FOUR
                THE NATIONAL FLAG, THE NATIONAL EMBLEM AND THE CAPITAL
         
               Article 136
               The national flag of the People's Republic of China is a red
          flag
          with five stars.
         
               Article 137
               The national emblem of the People's Republic of China is
          Tian'anmen in the center illuminated by five stars and encircled by
          ears of grain and a cogwheel.
         
               Article 138 The capital of the People's Republic of China is
          Beijing.
         
         
                            Amendments to the Constitution
         
                                    Amendment One
               (Approved on April 12, 1988, by the 7th NPC at its 1st Session)
         
               1. Article 11 of the Constitution shall include a new paragraph
          which
          reads: "The State permits the private sector of the economy to exist
          and develop within the limits prescribed by law. The private sector
          of
          the economy is a complement to the socialist public economy. The
          State
          protects the lawful rights and interests of the private sector of
          the
          economy, and exercises guidance, supervision and control over the
          private sector of the economy."
               2. The fourth paragraph of Article 10 of the Constitution,
          which
          provides that "no organization or individual may appropriate, buy,
          sell or lease land or otherwise engage in the transfer of land by
          unlawful means," shall be amended as: "no organization or individual
          may appropriate, buy, sell or otherwise engage in the transfer of
          land
          by unlawful means. The right to the use of land may be transferred
          according to law."
         
         
                                  Amendment Two
                         (Approved on March 29, 1993, by
                         the 8th NPC at its 1st Session)
         
              3. The last two sentences of the seventh paragraph of the
          Preamble
          which reads "The basic task of the nation in the years to come is to
          concentrate its effort on socialist modernization. Under the
          leadership
          of the Communist Party of China and the guidance of Marxism-Leninism
          and
          Mao Zedong Thought, the Chinese people of all nationalities will
          continue
          to adhere to the people's democratic dictatorship and follow the
          socialist
          road, steadily improve socialist institutions, develop socialist
          democracy,
          improve the socialist legal system and work hard and self-reliantly
          to
          modernize industry, agriculture, national defense and science and
          technology step by step to turn China into a socialist country with
          a high
          level of culture and democracy," shall be amended as: "China is at
          the
          primary stage of socialism. The basic task of the nation is,
          according to
          the theory of building socialism with Chinese characteristics, to
          concentrate its effort on socialist modernization. Under the
          leadership of
          the Communist Party of China and the guidance of Marxism-Leninism
          and Mao
          Zedong Thought, the Chinese people of all nationalities will
          continue to
          adhere to the people's democratic dictatorship and follow the
          socialist
          road, persevere in reform and opening to the outside, steadily
          improve
          socialist institutions, develop socialist democracy, improve the
          socialist legal system and work hard and self-reliantly to modernize
          industry, agriculture, national defense and science and technology
          step
          by step to turn China into a socialist country with prosperity and
          power,
          democracy and culture."
              4. At the end of the tenth paragraph of the Preamble, add "The
          system
          of multi-party cooperation and political consultation led by the
          Communist
          Party of China will exist and develop in China for a long time to
          come."
              5. article 7 which reads "The State economy is the sector of
          socialist
          economy under ownership by the whole people; it is the leading force
          in
          the national economy. The State ensures the consolidation and growth
          of
          the State economy," shall be changed to: "The State-owned economy,
          that is,
          the socialist economy under ownership by the whole people, is the
          leading
          force in the national economy. The State ensures the consolidation
          and
          growth of the State-owned economy."
              6. The first item of Article 8 which reads "Rural people's
          communes,
          agricultural producers' cooperatives, and other forms of cooperative
          economy such as producers', supply and marketing, credit and
          consumers'
          cooperatives, belong to the sector of socialist economy under
          collective
          ownership by the working people. Working people who are members of
          rural
          economic collectives have the right, within the limits prescribed by
          law,
          to farm plots of cropland and hilly land allotted for private use,
          engage
          in household sideline production and raise privately-owned
          livestock,"
          shall be amended as: "Rural household-based contract responsibility
          system
          with remuneration linked to output, and other forms of cooperative
          economy
          such as producers', supply and marketing, credit and consumers'
          cooperatives, belong to the sector of socialist economy under
          collective
          ownership by the working people. Working people who are members of
          rural
          economic collectives have the right, within the limits prescribed by
          law,
          to farm plots of cropland and hilly land allotted for private use,
          engage
          in household sideline production and raise privately-owned
          livestock."
              7. Article 15 which reads "The State practices economic planning
          on the
          basis of socialist public ownership. It ensures the proportionate
          and
          coordinated growth of the national economy through overall balancing
          by
          economic planning and the supplementary role of regulation by the
          market.
              Disturbance of the orderly functioning of the social economy or
          disruption of the State economic plan by any organization or
          individual
          is prohibited," shall be changed to: "The state has put into
          practice a
          socialist market economy. The State strengthens formulating economic
          laws,
          improves macro adjustment and control and forbids according to law
          any
          units or individuals from interfering with the social economic
          order."
              8. Article 16 which reads "State enterprises have
          decision-making power
          in operation and management within the limits prescribed by law, on
          condition that they submit to unified leadership by the State and
          fulfil
          and their obligations under the State plan.
              State enterprises practice democratic management through
          congresses of
          workers and staff and in other ways in accordance with the law,"
          shall be
          revised as: "Stated-owned enterprises have decision-making power in
          operation and management within the limits prescribed by law.
          State-owned
          enterprises practice democratic management through congresses of
          workers
          and staff and in other ways in accordance with the law."
               9. Article 17 which reads "Collective economic organizations
          have
          decision-making power in conducting independent economic activities,
          on
          condition that they accept the guidance of the State plan and abide
          by
          the relevant laws.
              Collective economic organizations practice democratic management
          in
          accordance with the law, with the entire body of their workers
          electing
          or removing their managerial personnel and deciding on major issues
          concerning operation and management", shall be amended as:
          "Collective
          economic organizations have decision-making power in conducting
          independent economic activities, on condition that they abide by the
          relevant laws. Collective economic organizations practice democratic
          management, elect or remove their managerial personnel and decide on
          major issue concerning operation and management according to law."
              10. The their item of Article 42 which reads "Work is the
          glorious
          duty of every able-bodied citizen. All working people in State
          enterprises and in urban and rural economic collectives should
          perform
          their tasks with an attitude consonant with their status as masters
          of
          the country. The State promotes socialist labor emulation, and
          commends
          and rewards model and advanced workers. The state encourages
          citizens to
          take part in voluntary labor," shall be amended as: "Work is the
          glorious
          duty of every able-bodied citizen. All working people in State-owned
          enterprises and in urban and rural economic collectives should
          perform
          their tasks with an attitude consonant with their status as masters
          of
          the country. The State promotes socialist labor emulation, and
          commends
          and rewards model and advanced workers. The State encourages
          citizens to
          take part in voluntary labor."
              11. Article 98 which reads "The term of office of the people's
          congresses of provinces, municipalities directly under the Central
          Government and cities divided into districts is five years. The term
          of
          office of the people's congresses of countries, cities not divided
          into
          districts, municipal districts, townships, nationality townships and
          towns
          is three years," shall be revised as: "The term of office of the
          people's
          congresses of provinces, municipalities directly under the Central
          Government, counties, cities and municipal districts is five years.
          The
          term of office of the people's congresses of townships, nationality
          townships and towns is three years."
         
         
                                   Amendment Three
                             (Approved on March 15, 1999, by
                             the 9th NPC at its 2nd Session)
         
              The original text of paragraph seven in the Preamble of the
          Constitution is: "Both the victory of China's new-democratic
          revolution and the successes of its socialist cause have been
          achieved
          by the Chinese people of all nationalities under the leadership of
          the
          Communist Party of China and the guidance of Marxism-Leninism and
          Mao
          Zedong Thought, and by upholding truth, correcting errors and
          overcoming numerous difficulties and hardships. China is currently
          in
          the primary stage of socialism. The basic task of the nation is to
          concentrate its effort on socialist modernization in accordance with
          the theory of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. Under
          the leadership of the Communist Party of China and the guidance of
          Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought, the Chinese people of all
          nationalities will continue to adhere to the people's democratic
          dictatorship, follow the socialist road, persist in reform and
          opening-up, steadily improve socialist institutions, develop
          socialist
          democracy, improve the socialist legal system and work hard and
          self-reliantly to modernize industry, agriculture, national defense
          and science and technology step by step to turn China into a
          powerful
          and prosperous socialist country with a high level of culture and
          democracy."
              It is revised into: "Both the victory of China's new-democratic
          revolution and the successes of its socialist cause have been
          achieved
          by the Chinese people of all nationalities under the leadership of
          the
          Communist Party of China and the guidance of Marxism-Leninism and
          Mao
          Zedong Thought, and by upholding truth, correcting errors and
          overcoming numerous difficulties and hardships. China will stay in
          the
          primary stage of socialism for a long period of time. The basic task
          of the nation is to concentrate its efforts on socialist
          modernization
          by following the road of building socialism with Chinese
          characteristics. Under the leadership of the Communist Party of
          China
          and the guidance of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought and Deng
          Xiaoping Theory, the Chinese people of all nationalities will
          continue
          to adhere to the people's democratic dictatorship, follow the
          socialist road, persist in reform and opening-up, steadily improve
          socialist institutions, develop a socialist market economy, advance
          socialist democracy, improve the socialist legal system and work
          hard
          and self-reliantly to modernize industry, agriculture, national
          defense and science and technology step by step to turn China into a
          powerful and prosperous socialist country with a high level of
          culture
          and democracy."
              One section is added to Article Five of the Constitution as the
          first section: "The People's Republic of China practices ruling the
          country in accordance with the law and building a socialist country
          of
          law."
              The original text of Article Six of the Constitution is: "The
          basis
          of the socialist economic system of the People's Republic of China
          is
          socialist public ownership of the means of production, namely,
          ownership by the whole people and collective ownership by the
          working
          people." "The system of socialist public ownership supersedes the
          system of exploitation of man by man; it applies the principle of
          'from
          each according to his ability, to each according to his work'."
              It is revised into:"The basis of the socialist economic system
          of
          the People's Republic of China is socialist public ownership of the
          means of production, namely, ownership by the whole people and
          collective ownership by the working people. The system of socialist
          public ownership supersedes the system of exploitation of man by
          man;
          it applies the principle of 'from each according to his ability, to
          each according to his work'." "During the primary stage of
          socialism,
          the State adheres to the basic economic system with the public
          ownership remaining dominant and diverse sectors of the economy
          developing side by side, and to the distribution system with the
          distribution according to work remaining dominant and the
          coexistence
          of a variety of modes of distribution."
              The original text of the first section in Article Eight of the
          Constitution is:"The rural household-based output-related contracted
          responsibility system and other forms of the cooperative economy
          such
          as producers', supply and marketing, credit and consumers'
          cooperatives belong to the sector of the socialist economy under
          collective ownership by the working people. Working people who are
          members of rural economic collectives have the right, within the
          limits prescribed by law, to farm plots of cropland and hilly land
          allotted for private use, engage in household sideline production
          and
          raise privately owned livestock."
              It is revised into:"Rural collective economic organizations
          practice the double-tier management system that combines unified and
          separate operations on the basis of the household-based
          output-related
          contracted responsibility system. Various forms of the cooperative
          economy in rural areas such as producers', supply and marketing,
          credit and consumers' cooperatives belong to the sector of the
          socialist economy under collective ownership by the working people.
          Working people who are members of rural economic collectives have
          the
          right, within the limits prescribed by law, to farm plots of
          cropland
          and hilly land allotted for private use, engage in household
          sideline
          production and raise privately owned livestock."
              The original text of Article 11 of the Constitution is: "The
          individual economy of urban and rural working people, operating
          within
          the limits prescribed by law, is a complement to the socialist
          public
          economy. The State protects the lawful rights and interests of the
          individual economy." "The State guides, helps and supervises the
          individual economy by exercising administrative control." "The State
          permits the private economy to exist and develop within the limits
          prescribed by law. The private economy is a complement to the
          socialist public economy. The State protects the lawful rights and
          interests of the private economy, and guides, supervises and
          administers the private economy."
              It is revised into: "Individual, private and other non-public
          economies that exist within the limits prescribed by law are major
          components of the socialist market economy." "The State protects the
          lawful rights and interests of individual and private economies, and
          guides, supervises and administers individual and private
          economies."
              The original text of Article 28 of the Constitution is: "The
          State
          maintains public order and suppresses treasonable and other
          counter-revolutionary activities; it penalizes actions that endanger
          public security and disrupt the socialist economy and other criminal
          activities, and punishes and reforms criminals."
              It is revised into: "The State maintains public order and
          suppresses treasonable and other criminal activities that endanger
          State security; it penalizes actions that endanger public security
          and
          disrupt the socialist economy and other criminal activities, and
          punishes and reforms criminals."
         
         
                (updated in 1999)


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