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Who's Who of the New Politburo (16/10/2002)
2004/03/08
The following are the biographical sketches of the newly elected members of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the 16th CPC Central Committee. They are Hu Jintao, Wu Bangguo, Wen Jiabao, Jia Qinglin, Zeng Qinghong, Huang Ju, Wu Guanzheng, Li Changchun and Luo Gan.

Hu Jintao, male, 59, Han nationality, a native of Jixi, Anhui Province, was born in December 1942. He joined the Communist Party of China (CPC) in April 1964 and began to work in July 1965 after he graduated from the Water Conservancy Engineering Department of Tsinghua University, where he had majored in the study of hub hydropower stations. He holds the academic title of engineer.


He is now general secretary of the CPC Central Committee, vice-chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission, vice-president of the People's Republic of China, vice-chairman of the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China and president of the Party School of the CPC Central Committee.


1959-1964: Student at the Water Conservancy Engineering Department of Tsinghua University.


1964-1965: Postgraduate and political instructor at the Water Conservancy Engineering Department of Tsinghua University.


1965-1968: Participated in R&D at the Water Conservancy Engineering Department of Tsinghua University and served as political instructor before the start of the "cultural revolution."


1968-1969: Worked with the housing construction team of Liujia Gorge Engineering Bureau, Ministry of Water Conservancy.


1969-1974: Technician and secretary of No. 813 Sub-Bureau, Fourth Engineering Bureau, Ministry of Water Conservancy and deputy-secretary of the general Party branch of the sub-bureau's head office.


1974-1975: Secretary of the Gansu Provincial Construction Committee (GPCC).


1975-1980: Deputy director of the design management division, GPCC.


1980-1982: Vice-chairman of GPCC and secretary of the Gansu Provincial Committee of the Communist Youth League (Sept.1982-Dec.1982).


1982-1984: Secretary of the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Communist Youth League of China, Chairman of the All-China Youth Federation.


1984-1985: First secretary, Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Communist Youth League of China.


1985-1988: Secretary of the Guizhou Provincial Party Committee.


1988-1992: Secretary of the Party Committee of Tibet Autonomous Region.


1992-1993: Member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, and member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee.


1993-1998: Member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, Member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee, President of the Party School of the CPC Central Committee.


1998-1999: Member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, Member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee, Vice-president of the People's Republic of China, President of the Party School of the CPC Central Committee.


1999-2002: Member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, Member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee, Vice-chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission, Vice-president of the People's Republic of China, Vice-chairman of the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China, President of the Party School of the CPC Central Committee.


2002-: General secretary of the CPC Central Committee, Vice-chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission, Vice-president of the People's Republic of China, Vice-chairman of the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China, President of the Party School of the CPC Central Committee.


He was an alternate member, member of the 12th CPC Central Committee, member of the 13th, 14th and 15th CPC Central Committees and is a member of the 16th CPC Central Committee. He was a member of the Political Bureau and its Standing Committee, and member of the Secretariat of the 14th and 15th CPC Central Committees and is a member of the Political Bureau and of its Standing Committee, and general secretary of the 16th CPC Central Committee. He was made an additional vice-chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission at the fourth plenary session of the 15th CPC Central Committee. He was a member of the Standing Committee of the Sixth National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).


Wu Bangguo, male, 60, Han nationality, a native of Feidong County, Anhui Province, was born in July 1941. He joined the Communist Party of China (CPC) in April 1964 and began working in September 1966. He graduated from the specialty of electron tube of the Department of Radio Electronics of Tsinghua University. With a university education, he holds the title as an engineer. He serves as a member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, vice-premier of the State Council, a member of its Leading Party Members' Group and Secretary of the Work Committee of Large Enterprises of the CPC Central Committee.


1960-1967: Student majoring in electron tube at the Department of Radio Electronics of Tsinghua University.


1967-1976: Worker and technician of Shanghai No. 3 Electronic Tube Factory, deputy chief and chief of its technical section.


1976-1978: Deputy secretary of the Party Committee of Shanghai No. 3 Electronic Tube Factory, deputy director of its revolutionary committee, deputy factory director, deputy secretary of the Party committee of the factory and factory director.


1978-1979: Deputy manager of Shanghai Electronic Elements Company.


1979-1981: Deputy manager of Shanghai Electron Tube Company.


1981-1983: Deputy secretary of the Party Committee of Shanghai Meters, Instruments and Telecommunications Bureau.


1983-1985: Member of the Standing Committee of the CPC Shanghai Municipal Committee and secretary of the CPC Municipal Committee in Charge of Science and Technology.


1985-1991: Deputy secretary of the CPC Shanghai Municipal Committee.


1991-1992: Secretary of the CPC Shanghai Municipal Committee.


1992-1994: Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and secretary of the CPC Shanghai Municipal Committee.


1994-1995: Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee.


1995-1997: Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee and vice-premier of the State Council.


1997-1998: Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and Vice-Premier of the State Council.


1998-1999: Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, Vice-Premier of the State Council and secretary of the Central Work Committee of Large Enterprises.


1999-2002: Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, vice-premier of the State Council, member of its Leading Party Members' Group and secretary of the Central Work Committee of Large Enterprises.


2002-: Member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, vice-premier of the State Council, member of its Leading Party Members' Group and secretary of the Central Work Committee of Large Enterprises.


He was alternate member of the 12th and 13th CPC Central Committees, member of the 14th CPC Central Committee, and member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee. He was elected an additional member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee at the 4th Plenary Session of the 14th CPC Central Committee. He was member of the 15th CPC Central Committee and member of its Political Bureau. He is member of the 16th CPC Central Committee, member of its Political Bureau and Standing Committee member of the Political Bureau.


Wen Jiabao, male, 59, Han nationality, a native of Tianjin, was born in September 1942. He joined the Communist Party of China (CPC) in April 1965 and began working in September 1967. He graduated from the specialty of geological structure of Beijing Institute of Geology. He is a postgraduate and engineer.


He serves as member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, Vice-Premier of the State Council, member of its Leading Party Members' Group and Secretary of the Financial Work Committee of the CPC Central Committee.


1960-1965: Student majoring in geological surveying and prospecting of the No. 1 Department of Geology and Minerals at Beijing Institute of Geology.


1965-1968: Postgraduate majoring in geological structure at Beijing Institute of Geology.


1968-1978: Technician and political instructor of the Geomechanics Survey Team under Gansu Provincial Geological Bureau and head of its political section.


1978-1979: Member of the Standing Committee of the Party Committee of the Geomechanics Survey Team under Gansu Provincial Geological Bureau and deputy head of the team.


1979-1981: Deputy section head and engineer of Gansu Provincial Geological Bureau.


1981-1982: Deputy director-general of Gansu Provincial Geological Bureau.


1982-1983: Director of the Policy and Law Research Office of the Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources and a member of its Leading Party Members' Group.


1983-1985: Vice-minister of Geology and Mineral Resources, member and deputy secretary of its Leading Party Members' Group and director of its Political Department.


1985-1986: Deputy director of the General Office of the CPC Central Committee.


1986-1987: Director of the General Office of the CPC Central Committee.


1987-1992: Alternate member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee, director of the General Office of the CPC Central Committee and secretary of the Work Committee of Departments under the CPC Central Committee.


1992-1993: Alternate member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee, director of the General Office of the CPC Central Committee and secretary of the Work Committee of Departments under the CPC Central Committee.


1993-1997: Alternate member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee.


1997-1998: Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee.


1998-2002: Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee, vice-premier of the State Council, member of its Leading Party Members' Group and Secretary of the Financial Work Committee of the CPC Central Committee.


2002-: Member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, vice-premier of the State Council, member of its Leading Party Members' Group and secretary of the Financial Work Committee of the CPC Central Committee.


He was a member of the 13th CPC Central Committee, alternate member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee, member of the 14th CPC Central Committee, alternate member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee, member of the 15th CPC Central Committee, member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee. He is a member of the 16th CPC Central Committee, member and Standing Committee member of the Political Bureau of the 16th CPC Central Committee.


Jia Qinglin, male, 62, Han nationality, a native of Botou, Hebei Province, was born in March 1940. He joined the Communist Party of China (CPC) in December 1959 and began working in October 1962. He graduated from the specialty of electric motor and appliance design and manufacture of the Department of Electric Power of Hebei Engineering College. With a university education, he holds the title as an engineer. He serves as a member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee.


1956-1958: Student majoring in the industrial enterprise planning in Shijiazhuang Industrial Management School.


1958-1962: Student majoring in electric motor and appliance design and manufacture of the Department of Electric Power of Hebei Engineering College.


1962-1969: Technician of the Complete Plant Bureau of the First Ministry of Machine-Building Industry and deputy secretary of its CYLC organization.


1969-1971: Sent to do manual labor in the May 7th Cadre School of the First Ministry of Machine-Building Industry in Fengxin County, Jiangxi Province.


1971-1973: Technician of the Policy Research Office of the General Office of the First Ministry of Machine-Building Industry.


1973-1978: Chief of the Product Management Bureau of the First Ministry of Machine-building Industry.


1978-1983: General Manager of China National Machinery and Equipment Import and Export Corporation.


1983-1985: Director of Taiyuan Heavy Machinery Plant and secretary of its Party Committee.


1985-1986: Member of the Standing Committee of the CPC Fujian Provincial Committee and its deputy secretary.


1986-1988: Deputy secretary of the CPC Fujian Provincial Committee and head of the Organization Department of the CPC Fujian Provincial Committee.


1988-1990: Deputy secretary of the CPC Fujian Provincial Committee, President of the Party School of the CPC provincial committee and secretary of the Work Committee of Departments under the CPC Provincial Committee.


1990-1991: Deputy secretary of the CPC Fujian Provincial Committee, deputy governor and acting governor of Fujian Province.


1991-1993: Deputy secretary of the CPC Fujian Provincial Committee and governor of Fujian Province.


1993-1994: Secretary of the CPC Fujian Provincial Committee and governor of Fujian Province.


1994-1996: Secretary of the CPC Fujian Provincial Committee and chairman of the Standing Committee of the Fujian Provincial People's Congress.


1996-1997: Deputy secretary of the CPC Beijing Municipal Committee, vice-mayor, acting mayor and mayor of Beijing.


1997-1999: Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, secretary of the CPC Beijing Municipal Committee and mayor of Beijing.


1999-2002: Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and secretary of the CPC Beijing Municipal Committee.


2002-: Member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee.


He was a member of the 14th and 15th CPC Central Committees and member of the Political Bureau of the 15th CPC Central Committee. He is a member of the 16th CPC Central Committee, member and Standing Committee member of the Political Bureau of the 16th CPC Central Committee.


Zeng Qinghong, male, 62, Han nationality, a native of Ji'an, Jiangxi Province, was born in July 1939. He joined the Communist Party of China (CPC) in April 1960 and began working in July 1963. He graduated from the Automatic Control Department, Beijing Institute of Technology. He is a university graduate and engineer.


He is now member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee.


1958-1963: Student of the Automatic Control Department, Beijing Institute of Technology.


1963-1965: Technician of No. 743 Army Unit, the People's Liberation Army (PLA).


1965-1969: Technician of No. 6 Office, No. 2 Department of the Second Academy, the Seventh Ministry of Machine-Building Industry.


1969-1970: Sent to do manual labor at the Chikan base of the Guangzhou troops and at the Xihu production base in Hunan Province.


1970-1973: Technician of No. 2 Department of the Second Academy, the Seventh Ministry of Machine-Building Industry.


1973-1979: Technician of Production Division and Science and Technology Division, Beijing Office of National Defense Industry.


1979-1981: Secretary of the General Office of the State Planning Commission.


1981-1982: Deputy Division Director of the General Office of the State Energy Commission.


1982-1983: Worked at the Liaison Department of the Foreign Affairs Bureau of the Ministry of Petroleum Industry.


1983-1984: Deputy manager of the Liaison Department of China National Offshore Oil Corporation; deputy director of the Foreign Affairs Bureau of the Ministry of Petroleum Industry; secretary of the Party Committee of the South and Yellow Seas Petroleum Corporation.


1984-1986: Deputy head and head of the Organization Department, and member of the Standing Committee of and secretary-general of the Shanghai Municipal Committee of the CPC.


1986-1989: Deputy secretary of the Shanghai Municipal Party Committee.


1989-1993: Deputy director of the General Office of the CPC Central Committee.


1993-1997: Director of the General Office of CPC Central Committee; secretary of the Work Committee for Offices Directly Under the CPC Central Committee.


1997-1999: Alternate member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee; member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee; director of the General Office of the CPC Central Committee; secretary of the Work Committee for Offices Directly Under the CPC Central Committee.


1999-2002: Alternate member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee; member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee; and head of the Organization Department of the CPC Central Committee.


2002-: Member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee.


He was a member of the 15th CPC Central Committee, an alternate member of its political bureau and member of its Secretariat. He is a member of the 16th CPC Central Committee, a member of its Political Bureau and of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau and a member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee.


Huang Ju, male, 63, Han nationality, a native of Jiashan, Zhejiang Province, was born in September 1938. He, beginning to work in May 1963, joined the Communist Party of China (CPC) in March 1966. He graduated from the Department of Electrical Machinery Engineering, Tsinghua University, where he had majored in Electrical Machinery Manufacturing. He is a university graduate and engineer.


He is now a member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee.


1956-1963: Majored in Electrical Machinery Manufacturing, Department of Electrical Machinery Engineering, Tsinghua University.


1963-1967: Technician at Power Workshop and Cast Steel Workshop of Shanghai Artificial Board-Making Machinery Plant; and secretary of the plant director.


1967-1977: Technician at Power Workshop of Zhonghua Metallurgical Plant in Shanghai; and deputy secretary of the workshop's Party branch.


1977-1980: Deputy chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of Shanghai Zhonghua Metallurgical Plant and the plant's deputy director and engineer.


1980-1982: Deputy manager of Shanghai Petrochemical General Machinery Manufacturers Company.


1982-1983: Deputy director of Shanghai First Bureau of Electrical and Machinery Industry.


1983-1984: Member of the Standing Committee of the Shanghai Municipal Committee of the CPC and secretary of the Shanghai Municipal Industrial Work Party Committee.


1984-1985: Member of the Standing Committee and secretary-general of the Shanghai Municipal Committee of the CPC.


1985-1986: Deputy secretary of the Shanghai Municipal Committee of the CPC.


1986-1991: Deputy secretary of the Shanghai Municipal Party Committee and deputy mayor of Shanghai.


1991-1994: Deputy secretary of the Shanghai Municipal Party Committee and mayor of Shanghai.


1994-1995: Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee; Secretary of the Shanghai Municipal Party Committee and mayor of Shanghai.


1995-2002: Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee; Secretary of the Shanghai Municipal Party Committee.


2002-: Member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee.


He was an alternate member of the 13th CPC Central Committee and member of the 14th and 15th CPC Central Committees. He was elected an additional member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee at the Fourth Plenary Session of the 14th CPC Central Committee. He was a member of the Political Bureau of the 15th CPC Central Committee. He is a member of the 16th CPC Central Committee and member of its Political Bureau and of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau.


Wu Guanzheng, male, 63, Han nationality, a native of Yugan, Jiangxi Province, was born in August 1938. He joined the Communist Party of China (CPC) in March 1962 and began to work in April 1968. He graduated from the specialty of thermal measurement and automatic control of the Power Department of Tsinghua University. He is a postgraduate and engineer.


He is now a member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection and secretary of the Shandong Provincial Party Committee.


1959-1965: Studied in the specialty of thermal measurement and automatic control, Power Department, Tsinghua University; and secretary of the branch of the Communist Youth League of the university.


1965-1968: Postgraduate in the specialty of thermal measurement and automatic control, Power Department, Tsinghua University; and deputy secretary of the Party branch.


1968-1975: Technician of Gedian Chemical Plant in Wuhan, Hubei Province, deputy chief of the plant's technology section, head of its workshop, member of the plant's Party Committee, and deputy chairman of the plant's revolutionary committee.


1975-1982: Deputy director of the Wuhan Municipal Science and Technology Committee, Hubei Province and member of its Leading Party Members' Group, vice-chairman of the Wuhan Municipal of Science and Technology Association and member of its Leading Party Members' Group, deputy chief of the Wuhan Municipal Innovation, Transformation and Potential- Tapping Headquarters and head of the office of the headquarters, chairman of the Wuhan Municipal Center for Engineering Science and Technology and secretary of its Party Committee.


1982-1983: Member of the Standing Committee of the Wuhan Municipal Committee of the CPC, Hubei Province.


1983-1986: Party Secretary and Mayor of Wuhan, Hubei Province (there was the first secretary then).


1986-1995: Deputy Party secretary, deputy governor, acting governor and governor of Jiangxi Province.


1995-1997: Secretary of the Jiangxi Provincial Committee of the CPC.


1997-2002: Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, secretary of the Shandong Provincial Committee of the CPC, and president of the Party School of the Shandong Provincial Party Committee.


2002-: Member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, secretary of the Shandong Provincial Committee of the CPC, and president of the Party School of the Shandong Provincial Committee of the CPC.


He was an alternate member of the 12th CPC Central Committee, member of the 13th, 14th and 15th CPC Central Committees and a member of the Political Bureau of the 15th CPC Central Committee. He is a member of the 16th CPC Central Committee, member and Standing Committee member of its Political Bureau. He is a member of the Standing Committee of and secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection at the 16th National Congress of the CPC.


Li Changchun, male, 58, Han nationality, a native of Dalian, Liaoning Province, was born in February 1944. He joined the Communist Party of China (CPC) in September 1965 and began working in September 1966. He graduated from the Specialty of the Industrial Enterprise Automation of the Department of Electric Machinery of Harbin Institute of Technology. With a university education, he holds the title as an engineer.


He is now a member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and the secretary of the Guangdong Provincial Committee of the CPC.


1961-1966: Student majoring in the Industrial Enterprise Automation of the Department of Electric Machinery of Harbin Institute of Technology.


1966-1968: Stayed at Harbin Institute of Technology awaiting job assignments.


1968-1975: Technician of Shenyang Switchgear Plant in Liaoning Province.


1975-1980: Vice-chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of Shenyang Electrical Equipment Company in Liaoning Province, member of the Standing Committee of the CPC Committee of the company, and deputy manager and manager of Shenyang Electrical Control Equipment Company and deputy secretary of the company's CPC Committee.


1980-1981: Deputy director of Shenyang Bureau of Mechanical and Electrical Industry and deputy secretary of the bureau's CPC Committee.


1981-1982: Deputy secretary-general of the Shenyang Municipal Committee of the CPC in Liaoning Province.


1982-1983: Vice mayor of Shenyang, Liaoning Province, and chairman of the Shenyang Municipal Economic Committee.


1983-1985: Secretary of the Shenyang Municipal Committee of the CPC in Liaoning Province and mayor of Shenyang.


1985-1986: Deputy secretary of the Liaoning Provincial Committee of the CPC and secretary of the Shenyang Municipal Committee of the CPC.


1986-1987: Deputy secretary of the Liaoning Provincial Committee of the CPC and vice governor and acting governor of Liaoning Province.


1987-1990: Deputy secretary of the Liaoning Provincial Committee of the CPC and governor of Liaoning Province.


1990-1991: Deputy secretary of the Henan Provincial Committee of the CPC and vice governor and acting governor of Henan Province.     


1991-1992: Deputy secretary of the Henan Provincial Committee of the CPC and governor of Henan Province.


1992-1993: Secretary of the Henan Provincial Committee of the CPC.


1993-1997: Secretary of the Henan Provincial Committee of the CPC and chairman of the Standing Committee of the Henan Provincial People's Congress (attended the workshop on theory held by the Party School of the CPC Central Committee for cadres at the provincial and ministerial level from October 1993 to November 1993).


1997-1998: Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, secretary of the Henan Provincial Committee of the CPC and chairman of the Standing Committee of the Henan Provincial People's Congress.


1998-2002: Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and secretary of the Guangdong Provincial Committee of the CPC.


2002-: Member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and secretary of the Guangdong Provincial Committee of the CPC.


He was an alternate member of the 12th CPC Central Committee and a member of the 13th, 14th and 15th CPC Central Committees and is a member of the 16th CPC Central Committee. He was a member of the Political Bureau of the 15th CPC Central Committee and is a member of the Political Bureau and a member of the Political Bureau's Standing Committee of the 16th CPC Central Committee.


Luo Gan, male, 66, Han nationality, a native of Jinan, Shandong Province, was born in July 1935. He joined the Communist Party of China (CPC) in June 1960 and began working in May 1962. He graduated from the Machine Casting Specialty of Freiburg Institute of Mining and Metallurgy in the Democratic Republic of Germany. With a university education, he holds the title as a senior engineer.


He is now a member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, state councilor, member of the Leading Party Members' Group of the State Council and secretary of the Political and Legislative Affairs Committee of the CPC Central Committee.


1953-1954: Student at the Pressure Processing Department of Beijing Institute of Iron and Steel Engineering.


1954-1955: Student of the German language at Karl Marx University in Leipzig in the Democratic Republic of Germany.


1955-1956: Field practice at Leipzig Iron and Steel Plant and Leipzig Metal Casting Plant in the Democratic Republic of Germany.


1956-1962: Student majoring in Machine Casting at Freiburg Institute of Mining and Metallurgy in the Democratic Republic of Germany.


1962-1969: Project group leader and technician of the Mechanical Engineering Research Institute Under the First Ministry of Machine-Building Industry.


1969-1970: Sent to do manual work at the May 7th Cadre School Under the First Ministry of Machine-Building Industry.


1970-1980: Director of the Luohe Preparatory Office of the Mechanical Engineering Academy Under the First Ministry of Machine-Building Industry and deputy director of the Zhengzhou Mechanical Engineering Research Institute Under the First Ministry of Machine-Building Industry.


1980-1981: Vice-chairman of the Henan Provincial Import and Export Committee and chairman of the Henan Provincial Science and Technology Committee.


1981-1983: Vice-governor of Henan Province and secretary of the CPC Henan Provincial Committee (the committee had a first secretary).


1983-1988: Vice-chairman of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, member of the Secretariat of the federation and deputy secretary of the Leading Party Members' Group of the federation.


1988-1993: Minister of Labor (April-December 1988), secretary-general of the State Council, secretary of the Leading Party Members' Group of the Government Offices of the State Council and secretary of the State Organs Work Committee of the CPC.


1993-1997: State councilor, secretary-general of the State Council, secretary of the Leading Party Members' Group of the Government Offices of the State Council, secretary of the State Organs Work Committee of the CPC, and deputy secretary of the Political and Legislative Affairs Committee of the CPC Central Committee.


1997-1998: Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee, state councilor and concurrently secretary-general of the State Council, secretary of the Leading Party Members' Group of the Government Offices of the State Council, secretary of the State Organs Work Committee of the CPC, and deputy secretary of the Political and Legislative Affairs Committee of the CPC Central Committee.


1998-2002: Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee, state councilor, member of the Leading Party Members' Group of the State Council, and secretary of the Political and Legislative Affairs Committee of the CPC Central Committee.


2002-: Member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, state councilor, member of the Leading Party Members' Group of the State Council, and secretary of the Political and Legislative Affairs Committee of the CPC Central Committee.


He was an alternate member of the 12th CPC Central Committee and a member of the 13th, 14th and 15th CPC Central Committees and is a member of the 16th CPC Central Committee. He was a member of the Political Bureau of the 15th CPC Central Committee and a member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee. He is a member of the Political Bureau of the 16th CPC Central Committee and a member of its Standing Committee.



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