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The Overall Strategic Development of the Chinese S & T Endeavor
      China now has a contingent of 19.13 million scientific and technical personnel, among whom 2.582 million are involved in science and technology activities. There are 5,860 institutes above the county level conducting scientific research work. Over the years, the country has established a comprehensive S & T system which covers all fields of science and technology.

      In line with the principle and strategic objectives set for China's science and technology development, China's S & T efforts are strategically deployed at the following three tiers:

      At the first tier are R&D activities aimed at tackling major S & T snags encountered in the nation's economic construction

      Through the organization and execution of the "National Program for Key S&T Projects", the "Industrial Experiment Program", the "Spark Program", the "National S & T Achievements Dissemination Program", and the "National Program for Science and Technology for Sustainable Development", efforts are under way to accelerate technological innovation and product regeneration in traditional industries, to develop and exploit advanced science and technology, and to harmonize the economic and social development with nature by upgrading the technological and labor performance level both in industry and agriculture.

      At the second tier are efforts to develop high and emerging technologies and high-tech industries

      Under the "National High Technology Research and Development Program" ("863 Program") and the "Torch Program", these efforts are designed to place the nation at the frontiers of the world's high technology development in certain fields; the S&T manpower is concentrated on key projects and limited objectives; and the commercialization, industrialization and globalization of high and emerging technologies are vigorously pursued.

      At the third tier are undertakings in basic research and applied basic research

      By launching the "National Program for Key Basic Research Projects"("the Scaling the Heights Program") and establishing the National Natural Science Foundation mechanism and key national Laboratories, the nation's basic research is expected to be greatly strengthened and provide a solid basis for the long-term scientific and technological advances as well as for the economic and social development.

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