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2004/03/09
              Since the founding of New China 50 years ago, the number of its
          cultural establishments has increased substantially.  By the end of
          1988, China had 2,915 cultural centers, increasing 2,005 over 1949;
          2,731 public libraries at or above the county level, a rise of
          nearly 50 time;  1,331 museums, rising 62 times; and 69,000 film
          projection units and 2,635 art troupes.
             China's contingent of cultural and artistic professionals has
          grown markedly. The number of higher art institutions increased from
          18 in 1949 to 30, and that of secondary art schools, from one in
          1949 to 166.  A socialist art educational system with complete
          disciplines, in various types and multiple forms has taken shape.
             After new China was founded, China's journalist undertaking
          embarked on a new path and saw unprecedented development.  
          Especially after the 3rd Plenary Session of the 11th Central
          Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CPC), its journalist
          undertaking has formed a large and scientific press and publication
          network.  In 1998, China had more than 2,100 types of newspapers,
          two news agencies, more than 1,200 radio stations and more than 300
          wireless and cable TV stations.  The press community had 550,000
          employees.  Meanwhile, great changes have taken place in the
          structure and layout of news media organizations, with a single
          Party newspaper system evolving into a newspaper system in multiple
          layers and with multiple varieties and functions.
             Since 1949, especially since China initiated reforms and opening
          up, its broadcasting undertaking has reported rapid development and
          great progress in its modernization drive. At the end of 1994, the
          data broadcasting and information service network via satellite
          transmission was opened nationwide, with data and information of any
          system and corporation transmitted and released at all times. China
          has set up more than 10,000 frequency modulation TV transmitting
          stations with large-, medium- and small-sized transmitters, with the
          transmission coverage reaching 100 percent in large and medium-sized
          cities.  
             At the end of 1998, the broadcasting and TV coverage of the
          population reached 88.2 and 89 percent, respectively. This means
          that about 150 million people had no access to the broadcasting and
          TV service.  In April of 1999, the State Development Planning
          Commission and the State Administration of Radio, Film and
          Television jointly issued a circular, stating that in 2000 all
          villages accessible to electricity should have access to
          broadcasting and TV service by and large. To attain the goal, the
          state would set up a special 250 million yuan fund.  
             In May of 1998, China had 2,160 types of newspapers with a total
          annual circulation of 26 billion copies, according to information
          released at the 15th annual meeting of the World Communications
          Group.  
             In 1998, China published more than 130,000 kinds of books with a
          total impression of 7.2 billion copies, about 10 times over 1952.  
          There were about 8,000 kinds of magazines with a combined impression
          of 2.5 billion copies.
             In China, literary and artistic creation is flourishing. The
          establishment of the "Mao Dun Literature Prize", "Lu Xun Literature
          Prize", "Bing Xin Literature Prize", "Soong Ching Ling Children
          Literature Prize", "Cao Yu Drama Literature Prize" and "Xia Yan Film
          Literature Prize" has promoted the creation of various literary
          works such as novels, poetry, prose, commentaries and dramas.
             China is a large cultural country with a long history. Its 56
          ethnic groups have created brilliant cultures with unique features.  
          As a dynamic cultural heritage, folk literature has been handed down
          from generations in such form as stories, ballads and proverbs.  In
          the 1950s and 80s, China launched two major collection campaigns for
          folk literature, collecting 1.83 million folk stories, 3.02 million
          folk songs and 2.48 million entries of folk proverbs with a total of
          four billion characters.   In July of 1994, the Chinese government
          and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
          Organization (UNESCO) signed an agreement to enact programs to
          preserve Chinese folk cultural heritage.  In the subsequent years,
          with the aid of the Japanese government, the UNESCO representative
          offices in China, Mongolia and Korea and the Chinese Folk Literature
          and Art Association jointly organized foreign and domestic
          specialists on folk literature to form a Chinese folk literature
          group. They investigated and interviewed in Jilin, Hubei, Sichuan,
          Yunnan and Hebei provinces. They discovered a large number of old
          and new folk story narrators who were either propagators of
          traditional folk stories or creators of new folk stories in the
          countryside.   Generally each could tell more than 100 stories and
          some of them could recite more than 1,000.  To commend their
          outstanding contributions to the protection of folk culture, the
          UNESCO and the Chinese Folk Literature and Art Association decided
          in 1998 to confer 10 folk story narrators with the title of "Chinese
          Folk Story Expert".   The narrators included Liu Depei, Wei Xiande,
          Jin Zhengxin, Cao Yanyu (female), Zhang Gongsheng, Wang Haihong, Lin
          Hong, Pan Xiaopu (female), Luo Chengshuan and Dong Fengqin (female).
           Of them, Dong Fenqin, a girl from Bai ethnic group in Yunnan
          Province, was granted the title of "folk song singer".              
               
          On December 12, 1985, China joined the "Convention on the Protection
          of World Cultural and Natural Heritage".  In 1986, China began to
          file applications to the UNESCO for enlisting Chinese sites into the
          world heritage list.  From 1987 to 1999, 23 Chinese sites were
          granted approval to be added to "world heritage list", including 16
          cultural heritage sites, three natural heritage sites, and four
          cultural and natural heritage sites.
          On May 25, 1998, the UNESCO office in China, Ministry of
          Construction and State Administration of Cultural Heritage jointly
          issued world heritage plates to the administrations of 19 world
          natural and cultural sites recognized by the UNESCO.  The plates
          will be erected permanently at the sites.  
         
         
          World Cultural Heritage Sites (16)

          Name of the sites                                                                                 Approval Time              
                         
          The Great Wall                                                                                              1987

          The Imperial Palace in Beijing                                                                   1987          
     
          The mausoleum of Qin Shihuang, the first emperor of Qin Dynasty
          (A.D. 221-206 B.C.), in Shaanxi                                                                   1987
         
          The Mogao Grottoes of Dunhuang in Gansu Province                           1987  
         
          The Peking Man Site near Zhoukoudian in Beijing suburbs                 1987
         
          Potala Palace in Lhasa, Tibet                                                                      1994
         
          The Chengde Imperial Summer Resort and adjacent temples in Hebei    
                                                                                                                                     1994
          The Confucian Manor, Confucian Temple, and Confucian Woods in
          Qufu in Shandong                                                                                          1994

          Ancient buildings of Wudang Mountain in Hubei                                     1994
         
          Lushan Mountain in Jiangxi                                                                          1996

          The town of Lijiang in Yunnan                                                                      1997
         
          The ancient town of Pingyao in Shanxi                                                       1997
         
          The gardens of Suzou City in Jiangsu                                                        1997
         
          The Summer Palace in Beijing                                                          Dec. 1998
         
          The Temple of Heaven in Beijing                                                      Dec. 1998                  
         
          Dazu Rock Carvings in Chongqing                                                   Dec. 1999
       
         
             World Natural Heritage Sites (3)
             
             Wulingyuan Scenic Resort of Zhangjiajie in Hunan                            1992  
             
             Jiuzhaigou Scenic Resort in Sichuan                                                     1992                          
             
             Huanglong Scenic Resort in Sichuan                                                     1992        
           
             
             World Cultural and Natural Heritage Sites (4 )
             
             Taishan Montain in Shandong                                                                 1987                                        
         
             Huangshan Mountain in Anhui                                                                 1990
         
             Emei Mountain and the Leshan Mountain Scenic Resorts in Sichuan  
                                                                                                                                     1996
             Wuyi Mountain in Fujian                                                                    Dec. 1999                                      

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